The New Deal 1932, America in the depths of the Great Depression Things look grim for Hoover as the 1932 general election nears
The New Deal 1932 Election Republicans Herbert Hoover and Charles Curtis
The New Deal 1932 Election Democrats Franklin D. Roosevelt and John Nance Garner
The New Deal 1932 Election Hoover shouldered blame for Depression and plight of Bonus Army Results
The New Deal Franklin D. Roosevelt 2-term governor of New York V. P. Candidate 1920 Victim of polio—mostly confined to wheelchair
The New Deal 1932 Election 1930DemRepOth Sen. 47 48 1 House 216 218 1 1932 Sen. 59 36 1 House 313 117 5 Dems: total control
The New Deal Roosevelt Carefully selected advisors: professors, lawyers, & journalists known as “The Brain Trust.” Together created New Deal “A new deal for the American people.”
The New Deal One of Roosevelt’s closest friends and most trusted advisors was Harry Hopkins First served as an aide to Roosevelt in N. Y. Headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration then the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
The New Deal Three Goals: 1. Relief for the needy 2. Economic recovery 3. Financial reform
The New Deal The Hundred Days: March 9-June 16, 1933 Roosevelt completely controlled the Congress Fifteen pieces of New Deal legislation.
The New Deal Roosevelt takes office March 4, 1933. March 5: declares a bank holiday to prevent further withdrawals. We’ll be closed until March 13th
The New Deal Congress passed The Emergency Banking Relief Act Treasury Department could inspect banks for solvency Insolvent banks remain closed; receive loans from government Revived public confidence in American banks—faith that banks in good financial shape
The New Deal March 12, 1933—Roosevelt gives first “fireside chat”—radio address Gave occasionally on issues of public concern. Explained New Deal programs in clear, simple language. People felt talking directly to them.
The New Deal Within next few weeks, people returned their savings to American banks. Glass-Steagall Banking Act of 1933—curb irresponsible speculation by banks Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured individual accounts up to $5,000.00
The New Deal Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 Reduced crop reduction to end surpluses and halt downward spiral of crop prices Domestic allotment system Agricultural Adjustment System
The New Deal 1936: Supreme Court struck down the Agricultural adjustment Act (AAA), saying agricultural issues should be regulated by the states, not the federal government. Setbacks for Roosevelt and the New Deal. Roosevelt felt further such decisions could dismantle the New Deal.
The New Deal Resettlement Administration (1935) Farm Security Administration (1937) Rural Electrification Administration National Industrial Recovery Act National Recovery Administration
The New Deal Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
The New Deal The Truth in Securities Act (1933 & 1934) Created the Securities and Exchange Commission (June 1934) Federal Emergency Relief Administration Civil Works Administration (4 Million people to work
The New Deal Pump-priming: Government money to stimulate the economy One of the New Deal’s most important contributions to public policy
The New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps
The New Deal Criticism of New Deal Early 1935: no end in sight Many Americans hostile to New Deal Right-wingers Corporate America Communists Conservatives concerned with reckless spending
The New Deal Criticism of New Deal: Liberty League Pierre S. du Pont family DuPont Chemical Arouse public opposition to the New Deal’s ‘dictatorial” policies and its supposed attacks on free enterprise FDR: “I welcome their hatred.”
The New Deal Francis Townsend Plan for federal pensions for the elderly Father Charles E. Coughlin Critical of capitalists Monetary reform
The New Deal Huey P. Long (D-LA) Attacked banks, oil companies Utilities, etc. Very powerful Dictatorial powers as governor Solid record of conventional progressive accomplishment
The New Deal Huey P. Long (D-LA) Share-Our-Wealth Plan Tax system to confiscate surplus wealth of richest people All The King’s Men 1949 & 2006
The New Deal Second New Deal—1935 Soak the Rich scheme Highest and most progressive tax rates in U. S. history Primarily a symbolic effect
The New Deal John L. Lewis William Green
The New Deal Frances Perkins Secretary of Labor First female cabinet member Led Social Security Act of 1935 Payroll tax Pension System Unemployment insurance
The New Deal Social Security Act of 1935 Frances Perkins Social insurance for the elderly and unemployed Elderly: $15.00 a month in federal assistance Pension system—payroll tax Also system of unemployment insurance—not welfare
The New Deal Works Progress Admin. (WPA)
The New Deal Works Progress Admin. (WPA) Civil works projects 2.1 million employed 1935-1941 Built or renovated: 110,000 public buildings Constructed 600 airports Constructed 500,000 miles of roads Constructed 100,000 bridges Also sponsored the Federal Writers Project
The New Deal 1936 General Election Roosevelt and John Nance Garner vs. Alf Landon of Kansas and Frank Knox Not even close
The New Deal Roosevelt Attempts to “Pack” the Supreme Court 1935, Supreme Court struck down the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) as unconstitutional Gave legislative powers to the executive branch
The New Deal February 1937: Roosevelt asks Congress to enact a court-reform bill that would add 6 new Supreme Court justices. Court-packing—create a Supreme Court sympathetic to New Deal programs.
The New Deal Most in Congress felt such a bill would violate the principles of judicial indepen- dence and the separation of powers. Never came to a vote. However, in time: Due to retirements/resignations, Roosevelt appointed 7 new justices in 4 years.
The New Deal 1934 Off Year Elections 74th Congress (1935-1937) DemRepOther Senate 69 25 2 House 322 103 10 73rd Congress (1933-1935) Senate 59 36 1 House 313 117 5
The New Deal Roosevelt’s Black Cabinet William Hastie Mary McLeod Bethune Informal Network of energetic African- American officeholders in Roosevelt Administration
The New Deal Marian Anderson DAR refused Permission to sing In DAR Hall in D. C. Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from DAR; persuaded Hopkins to permit Anderson to sing on Lincoln Memorial steps, Easter Sunday 1939
The New Deal Second New Deal Roosevelt prodded to help the poorest people by his wife, Eleanor
The New Deal Eleanor Roosevelt: Traveled country Reported to the president Kept president up-to-date about people’s suffering Reminded president to appoint women to government positions