Civil War Timeline By: Adam Spark
Before the Civil War • Pennsylvania became the first state to abolish slavery on March 1, 1780 • Massachusetts became the second state to abolish slavery, and gives the blacks and native Indians the rights to vote • Debates regarding importation of slaves is debated by delegates at the 1878 constitutional convention in Philadelphia. Congress passes the three-fifths clause stating that each slave is counted as three-fifths of a person for the calculation in representation in the congress. The act strengthens the power in the House of Representatives for slave states. • States have began to expand. Founding of new states
Before the Civil War • The first fugitive slave act is passed by the congress on February 12, 1793. The act authorized the arrest or seizure of fugitives and allowed for the recovery of runaway slaves. The fine for those who aided fugitive was $500 • The cotton gin was Invented in 1793by Eli • Whitney, received its patent in March 14, 1794. The machine increased the production of cleaned cotton, making cotton a profitable crop. As a result there was an increasing need of slaves • On August 30 1800, Gabriel Prosser leads group of armed slaves to rebel against slavery. He and the group are caught later and were executed
Before the Civil War • In 1804, A gradual emancipation act was announced by New Jersey's state legislatures • On march 2 1807 Law banning the importation of any new slaves was passed by the congress. The new law was to take effect on January 1, 1808 • In 1827, New York abolished slavery • On May 30,1854, Kansas-Nebraska act was passed. The act provided that the region could be decided into two new territories, Nebraska and Kansas. Use of slavery within the new territories was to be decided by popular sovereignty
Before the Civil War • On March 6, 1857, Dred Scott, a free slave sued for freedom. But his case was overrules because according to chief justice Roger Taney, Scott had no rights to sue in a federal court. The reason: the chief justice stated that the founders of United States did not included African Americans as citizens • John Brown, an American abolitionist had tried to liberate enslaved people. On October 16, 1859, he seized the federal arsenal at Harpers ferry, Virginia in order to free and arm enslave people. However, he was captured by colonial Robert E. Lee and was hanged on December 2 • Lincoln ran against Stephen A. Douglas for Senator In 1858. Although he lost the election, when he was debating with with Douglas regarding the north and the south, he gained a national reputation that won him the Republican nomination for President in 1860
Start of the War 1861 THE SOUTH SECEDES – JANUARY 1861 • Abraham Lincoln is elected to be the President of the United States of America • A state convention is called • Delegates voted to remove the state of SOUTH CAROLINA from the union (The United States of America) • Six other states followed the secession of South Carolina from the union • These states included Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas • Four other states secede: Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina • These states become known as the “Confederate States of America” THE SOUTH CREATES A GOVERNMENT – FEBRUARY 1861 • The seceding states hold a convention in Alabama • They create the Confederate Constitution • Although similar to the United States Constitution, the Confederate Constitution posses a greater stress on the autonomy of each state. • Until elections could be held, Jefferson Davis was named President of the Confederacy.
1861 THE SOUTH SEIZES FEDERAL FORTS – FEBRUARY 1861 • President Buchanan refuses to surrender southern federal forts to the seceding states • Southern state troops seize them • Troops from South Carolina refuse a supply ship at Fort Sumter • The ship was trying to reach federal forces that were based in Fort Sumter • Ship was forced to return to New York • The supplies were never delivered ATTACK ON FORT SUMTER – APRIL 1861 • Lincoln had forewarned the Southern States of his plan to send supplies to Fort Sumter • He wanted to avoid any possible hostilities • South Carolina feared a trick in Lincoln’s plan • Robert Anderson was asked to surrender • Anderson’s sets up a proposition to surrender only after his supplies have run out • Proposition is rejected • Shots were fired on the Fort • Civil War began on April 12 • Fort Sumter was surrendered to South Carolina
1861 THE BATTLE OF THE BULL RUN – JULY 1861 • Northern troops met a small numbered confederate force near bull run. • Union army retreated due to confederates well planned battle
1862 THE BATTLE OF SHILOH – APRIL 1862 • On April 6, Confederate forces attacked Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant at Shiloh, Tennessee. - 13,000 out of 63,000 Union soldiers died, and 11,000 of 40,000 Confederate troops were killed. THE SEVEN DAYS BATTLE • The seven days battles consisted of seven major battles over the seven days • It occurred near Richmond, Virginia • The union army, led by Maj.Gen. George B. McClellan was pushed away from Richmond under the command of Robert E. Lee and was left with no choice but to retreat down the Virginia Peninsula
1862 ANTIETAM – SEPTEMBER 1862 • Confederate Forces under General Lee were caught by General McClellan around Sharpsburg, Maryland • Bloodiest day of the entire war • 2.108 Union soldiers were killed and 9,549 were wounded • 2,700 Confederates were killed and 9,029 wounded • No clear winner of the battle • This was because General Lee withdrew to Virginia so McClellan was considered the victor • Lincoln announced his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation • This would free all slaves in area’s that rebelled against the US • It was effective January 1, 1863
1863 EMANCIPATION PROCLAIMATION – JANUARY 1863 • Lincoln redefined the war by proclaiming that the North shall free the slaves of the South on September 22. Now the war was officially over the issue of slavery. VICKSBURG CAMPAIGN NOVEMBER1862–JULY1863 • Led by Maj.Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, the Union gained control of the Mississippi river by defeating Lt. Gen. John C. Pembertson’s army.This was the last confederate controlled section of the Mississippi river
1863 THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG – JULY 1863 • Was from July 1 – July 3 • Fought around the town of Gettysburg • It was part of the Gettysburg campaign • One of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War • In three days between 46,000 and 51,000 American soldiers were killed • The victor of this battle was the Union Army GETTYSBURG ADDRESS – NOVEMBER 1863 • On November 19, 1863, President Lincoln visited this battlefield to dedicate it, and to honour the deceased soldiers who were buried there. His address proclaimed to the people that “these dead shall not have died in vain.”
THE BATTLE OF THE COLD HARBOR – JUNE 1864 • General Ulysses S. Grant’s last battle • One of the most bloody battles in all of American History • Over thousands of Union Soldiers will killed by the Confederate Troops • They were under the order of General Robert E. Lee • About 13,000 soldiers from the Union Army were killed • About 2,500 soldiers from the Confederate Army were killed • The Confederate Army were the winners of this battle
1864 RICHMOND • In mid-June, Lee retreated south of Richmond, to Petersburg. Grant surrounded and assaulted the city. Lee attempted to sneak out a number of forces to attack Washington D.C. through the Shenandoah River Valley but was stopped by Grant’s cavalry men. The valley was turned into a barren waste-land by the Union, and Grant confirmed his attack on Richmond as successful.
1865 SURRENDER AT THE APPOTOMAX COURTHOUSE • After several defeats from the union. Lee was on the verge of surrendering. However, he had led one more battle in hopes of claiming victory. Unfortunately they (the confederates) had lacked of supplies and Lee realized that the union army was gaining on them. So on April 7, 1865, Gen. Lee surrendered. He and Grant met at the Appomattox courthouse to make the confederate's surrender official • The Confederates would be allowed to return home on the basis of never fighting again, and they would be allowed to keep their guns and horses