Do Now; • Please drop off your: • Journals • Outline of Chapter 1 and appendix
Biology • The study of living things • Living things are known as organisms • From the Greek root Bios "Bios"=life "ology"=study of
1.1 Life’s Levels of Organization • Atom • Molecule • Cells • Tissues • Organs • Organ Systems • Population (organism) • Community • Ecosystem • Biosphere
Levels Of Organization Organism Individual living thing Bison Tissues, organs, and organ systems Tissue: Groups of Cells Nervous system Brain Nervous tissue Smallest functional unit of life Cells Nerve cell Groups of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compounds Molecules DNA Water
Levels of Organization Biosphere The part of Earth that contains all ecosystems Biosphere Ecosystem Community and its nonliving surroundings Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, air Community Populations that live together in a defined area Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass Population Group of organisms of one type that live in the same area Bison herd
What are Characteristics of life?? 1. Made Up of Cells 2. Reproduction Based on a Genetic Code DNA 4. Growth and Development Need for Materials and Energy metabolism 6. Response to the Environment Maintaining Internal Balance homeostasis 8. Evolution
Do Now: Please Copy this diagram into your piece notebook Characteristics of life
What are Characteristics of life?? • Made • Up of • Cells • Evolution • Reproduction • Based • on a • Genetic • Code • Growth • and • Development Characteristics of life • Maintaining • Internal • Balance • Responds • to the • Environment • Need for • Materials • and Energy
1.2 Overview of Life’s Unity Section 1-3 Characteristic Examples Living things are made up of units called cells. Many microorganisms consist of only a single cell. Animals and trees are multicellular. Living things reproduce. Maple trees reproduce sexually. A hydra can reproduce asexually by budding. Living things are based on a universal genetic code. Flies produce flies. Dogs produce dogs. Seeds from maple trees produce maple trees. Living things grow and develop. Flies begin life as eggs, then become maggots, and then become adult flies. Living things obtain and use materials and energy. Plants obtain their energy from sunlight. Animals obtain their energy from the food they eat. Leaves and stems of plants grow toward light. Living things respond to their environment. Despite changes in the temperature of the environment, a robin maintains a constant body temperature. Living things maintain a stable internal environment. Taken as a group, living things change over time. Plants that live in the desert survive because they have become adapted to the conditions of the desert.
The Virus Conundrum Why is a virus not considered a living organism??
Why does the scientific community have difficulty defining a virus as being alive?
1.2 Overview of Life’s Unity A. Characteristics of Living Things 1. Made Up of Cells 2. Reproduction 3. Based on a Genetic Code 4. Growth and Development Need for Materials and Energy metabolism 6. Response to the Environment 7. Maintaining Internal Balance 8. Evolution
5. The Need for Materials and Energy • Each normal living cell has ways to obtain and convert energy from its surroundings • Re: your metabolism is more then eating!!!! but • Producers can synthesize their own food from simple raw materials. • (autotrophs) • Green Plants, Algae • Consumers Cannot synthesize their own food • (Heterotrophs) • Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores, DECOMPOSERS
Materials and Energy 10% Rule Energy Input Producers Making their own food Nutrient Cycles • Consumers +Decomposers Energy output
6. Response to the Environment • Receptors and the stimuli they receive allow controlled responses to be made: • heat and cold, • harmful substances, • Varying food supplies. • Homeostasis refers to a state in which the conditions of the “internal environment” are maintained within tolerable limits. • Increased sugar causes insulin release, which stimulates cells to take up sugar. • Decreased blood sugar causes another hormone to call on stored sugar reserves.
B. ALL living organisms must carry out ALL 8 life functions Nutrition Synthesis Transport Growth Respiration Regulation Reproduction Excretion
Theories v. Law • Scientific Law- statement that describes some aspect of a phenomena of nature. • Irrefutable: that is always true. • Theories: well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Theories once accepted The world was?? Geocentric model: Every revolves around us Aristotle's theory that the heavier object falls faster than a lighter object History of Animals “Males have more teeth then females” Spontaneous generation Phrenology Brontosaurus or Apatosaurus? ??? Homo habilis H, erectus H. sapien
The Cell The cell is the basic unit of life. Smallest living unit (that is known) Yet Scientists still Question: Viruses Prion Most cells contain organelles (tiny organs) nucleus
The Cell Theory Three Principles, The cell: Is the basic unit of life. Is the basic unit of structure and function Comes from pre-existing cells Three Exceptions: The first cell Viruses Some self replicating organelles Chloroplast and mitochondria
Observation v. Inference • Provide 5 observations
Observation v. Inference • Provide 5 observations
Scientific Method • An systematic approach to problems solving: 1. Defining the problem 2. Formulating a hypothesis 3. Testing the hypothesis 4. Recording observations 5. State a conclusion (sometime edit your hypothesis)
Defining the problem • Hypothesis –a possible explanation for events. • Experimentation (Testing the hypothesis) 1. Control group (no change) a source for comparison 2. Experimental group(contains 2 variables) *Independent Variable (Manipulated) *Dependent Variable (responding) #’s • State a conclusion
American Coot Who Do I like Better?
What makes them similar? Who am I related to?