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Lesson Five

Lesson Five

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Lesson Five

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    1. Lesson Five Love is a Fallacy ---- by Max Shulman

    3. Teaching Contents Special terms in logic Detailed study of the text Organizational pattern The chief attraction of the story Language features Exercises

    4. Time allocation Terms in logic (15 min.) Detailed study of the text (110 min.) Structure analysis (15 min.) Language appreciation (15 min.) Exercise (25 min.)

    5. Lesson Five I. Special terms in logic argument--a statement which is offered as an evidence or a proof. It consists of two major elements 1. conclusion 2. premises -- a previous statement serving as a basis for an argument. Conclusion is to be drawn from premises.

    6. Special terms in logic fallacy -- false reasoning, as in an argument a weakness and lack of logic or good sense in an argument or piece of reasoning

    7. fallacy Usually, an argument is correct (deductively valid) if the premises can provide enough conclusive evidence for the conclusion. Otherwise the argument is wrong. It is said to be fallacious.

    8. Special terms in logic Three kinds of fallacy: 1. material fallacy -- in its material content through a misstatement of the facts. 2. verbal fallacy -- in its wording through an incorrect use of terms. 3. formal fallacy-in its structure through the use of an improper process of inference.

    9. False Analogy "High school should not require a freshman writing course . Harvard doesn't require a freshman writing course, and the students get along fine without it". --- The analogy is false because the two items don't have strong enough similarities to predict that what happens in one will happen in the other.

    10. Dicta Simpliciter "Everyone wants to get married someday." --- The example starts a logical train of thought with an assumption that is false. Not "everyone" wants to get married.

    11. Evading the issue There are a number of handy fallacies that people press into service to side step a problem while appearing to pursue the point. (????)

    12. 1)Distraction "Suds ' n ' Puds is a great restaurant : you can see how shining clean the kitchens are ". --- The example is called distraction because the reader's attention is drawn to the cleanliness of the kitchen instead of to the excellence of the food, which is usually the determiner of a great restaurant.

    13. 2)Ad hominem "against the person". "poisoning the well" " Ms Bauer is a terrible English teacher. She always wears blue jeans" --- Instead of point out faults in teaching technique, it calls attention to things about a teacher as a person that are unrelated to her teaching performance.

    14. 3)Ad misericordian (an appeal to pity) "Look at this fourteen-year-old child who's run away from home to hide her shame-- pregnant, unwashed, friendless. penniless, at the mercy of our social service agencies. Can you till claim that sex should be taught in the classroom?"

    15. 3)Ad misericordian (an appeal to pity) --- In this shifty approach to argumentation, the writer gives tear jerking descriptions of the cruel opponents' victims in order to arouse sympathy from the reader.

    16. Hasty Generalization "Mr Wang's handwriting is terrible. Mr. Hu's handwriting is also terrible and you know how terrible men's handwriting is ." --- It applies a special case to general rule. That fact that certain person's handwriting is bad doesn't imply that all mens handwriting is bad.

    17. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc After this, therefore because of this" "The last five times that I've worn my white pants, something depressing has happened. I'm not going to wear those pants again!" -- This fallacy assumes that if event Y happened after event X, then X must be the cause of Y.

    18. Circular Reasoning or Begging the question: "Juan is an impressive speaker because he always touches his listeners deeply."

    19. Circular Reasoning --- This problem occurs when the writer tries to support a claim by restating it in different words. You can tell this example is circular by considering this Why is Juan an impressive speaker? Because he touches his listeners deeply.? Why are Juan's listeners touched so deeply? Because he is an impressive speaker. impressive = touching someone deeply

    20. Appeal to the Wrong Authority "My political science teacher says that the new math is impossible for children to learn.

    21. Appeal to the Wrong Authority --- If the student believes that political science teacher's low opinion of new math strongly supports an argument against new math, the student is wrong. The political science teacher is an authority, but in a different field.

    22. Non Sequitur -- "it doesn't follow" "Students who take earth science instead of physics are lazy. Susie took earth science instead of physics. Susie should be kicked out of school" --- If the first statement is correct, then you could conclude that Susie is lazy. But there's nothing in that line of reasoning that says lazy students should be kicked out of school. The conclusion doesn't follow.

    23. II. Detailed study of the text: title -- humorous/ well chosen 1. When "fallacy" is taken in its ordinary sense, the title means: There is a deceptive or delusive quality about love. Love has delusive qualities

    24. Detailed study of the text: 2. When "fallacy" is having logical sense, it means : Love cannot be deduced from a set of given premises. Love can not follow the given rules. Love is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic.

    25. Charles Lamb (1775-1834) English essayist and critic who is now best known for his "Essays of Elia" (1823,1833). He collaborated with his sister Mary in adapting Shakespeare's plays into stories for children. "Tales from Shakespeare" "Specimens of English Dramatic Poets"

    26. unfetter-- set free let sth go freely / be completely out of control limp -- drooping, lacking firmness flaccid -- soft, flabby spongy -- soft, porous, full of holes, not firm specific characteristics of his writing (essay). He is joking , not serious

    27. Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-188) English author, Scottish writer He influenced social thinking about he new industrial working class through his essay "Chartism" and his book The Present and the Past. He is best known for his epic history of The French Revolution 1837 and his lectures On Heroes and Hero-Workshop 1841

    28. Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-188) He produced Sartor Resartus 1833-34, the book in which he first developed his characteristic style and thought. This book is a veiled Sardonic (scornful ???) attack upon the shams and pretences of society, upon hollow rank, hollow officialism, hollow custom, out of which life and usefulness have departed.

    29. Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-188) Carlyle developed a peculiar style of his own which was called --- "Carlyese" "Carlylism" Style -- a compound of biblical phrases colloquialisms Teutonic (???,????)twists his own coinings arranged in unexpected sequences.

    30. John Ruskin -- (1819-1900) *5image-1Ruskin* English critic and social theorist a writer on art and architecture In his later writings he attacked social and economic problems Modern Painters The Stones of Venice The Seven Lamps of Architecture Time and Tide

    31. John Ruskin -- (1819-1900) Positive program for social reforms: Sesame and Lilies (?????) The Crown of Wild Olive The King of the Golden River

    32. Implication: My writing is even more informal. I can do better than them. He says this only with his tongue in cheek.

    33. What is his purpose of writing this essay? He compared logic to a living thing ( a human being). Logic is not at all a dry learned branch of learning. It is like a living human being, full of beauty, passion and painful emotional shocks.

    34. trauma a term in psychiatry meaning a painful emotional experience.

    35. Authors note 1) His own idea about his own essay. From his point of view, his essay is sth limp, spongy. It is very informal. 2) His own idea about the purpose of that essay. It is not a dry branch of learning , but like a human being.

    36. Para 4 Introduction of the narrator --- a law student Notice the way he introduced himself "boasting"

    37. keen (of the mind) active, sensitive, sharp (syn. nimble, quick, adroit prompt, sharp smart swift) ???,??? ~ sight ????? ~ intelligence ?????

    38. calculating -- coldly panning and thinking about future actions and esp. whether they will be good or bad for oneself.

    39. perspicacious --- fml. quick to judge and understand ???????, ?? having or showing keen judgment and understanding

    40. acute, astute acute-- (senses, sensation, intellect) ??,??,?? able to notice small differences Dogs have an acute sense of smell. astute -- shrewd , quick at seeing how to gain an advantage clever and able to see quickly sth, that is to one's advantage.???,???

    41. comparison His brain 1. dynamo -- powerful 2. a chemist's scales--- precise, accurate 3. scalpel -- penetrating

    42. Para.5 introduction of the first antagonist Petey Burch He downgrades his roommate. nothing upstairs -- (Am. slang) empty-headed

    43. unstable unstable -- easily moved, upset or changed emotional -- having feelings which are strong or easily moved

    44. impressionable -- easy to be influenced, often with the result that one's feeling and ideas change easily and esp. that one is ready to admire other people.

    45. fad -- a style etc that interests many people for a short time, passing fashion.

    46. negation --- the lack or opposite of sth. positive, The opposite or absence of something regarded as actual, positive, or affirmative. Reason --- the ability to think, draw conclusions Fads / passing fashions, in my opinion, show a complete lack of reason.

    47. to be swept up in -- to be carried away by follow enthusiastically

    48. idiocy -- great foolishness or stupidity

    49. pound -- to hit hard to deliver heavy, repeated blows

    50. Charleston *5image-2* -- a quick spirited dance of the 1920's, in 4/4 time, characterized by a twisting step.

    51. Raccoon --?? the fur of a small, tree climbing mammal of N. America, having yellowish gray fur and a black, bushy ringed tail.???????? *5image-3raccoon*

    52. incredulously -- showing disbelief, unbelieving an incredulous look/ smile

    53. in the swim -- knowing about and concerned in what is going on in modern life. active in or conforming to current fashions

    54. mixed metaphor: 1. brain -- a precision instrument 2. brain -- a machine that has gears

    55. gear--- any of several arrangements, esp. of toothed wheels in a machine, which allows power to be passed from one part to another so as to control the power, speed or direction of movement.

    56. gear--- bottom gear top gear low ---- in a car which is used for starting high --- for going fast

    57. gear--- If you say that a person, system, or process is in a particular gear, you are talking about the speed, energy, or efficiency with which they are working or functioning. eg. It took time to shift back into normal gear for boring routine tasks. She knew how to change gear in order to achieve the right result. The Chinese economy will be in high gear.

    58. stroke pass the hand over gently, esp. for pleasure The cat likes to be stroked. (over the surface of )

    59. Para. 23 the introduction of the second antagonist

    60. cerebral (fml, humor) ??? 1. of the brain 2. intellectual, excluding the emotions tending to or showing (too much) serious thinking

    61. gracious --- polite kind pleasant What are the specifications of his future wife? 1. beautiful 2. gracious 3. intelligent

    62. carriage --- (sing) the manner of carrying oneself, bearing the manner of holding one's head, limbs, and body when standing or walking. physical aspects of persons bearing ??, ?? Dancing can improve the carriage. ?????????

    63. deportment -- fml. 1. Br.E the way a person, esp. a young lady, stands and walks 2. Am.E the way a person, esp, a young lady, behaves in the company of others

    64. bearing -- manner of holding one's body or way of behaving (physical /mental posture)??,?? She has a very modest bearing. ??????

    65. breeding --- polite social behavior

    66. pot roast --- a piece of beef cooked only with a little water after having been made brown by cooking in hot fat.

    67. makings -- qualities, the possibility of developing into ?? He has the makings of a good doctor. He has in him the makings of a great man.

    68. dipper a long-handled cup esp for dipping a dipper of sauerkraut -- a small cupful of pickled chopped cabbage veer -- change in direction, shift, turn

    69. go steady -- (Am. coll.) to date sb of the opposite sex regularly and exclusively; be sweetheart

    70. wink -- v. n. v. to close and open (one eye) rapidly, usu, as signal between people, esp of amusement He winked at her and she knew he was only pretending to be angry. n. a winking movement He left the room with a wink of the eye. She gave me a wink.

    71. mince to lessen the force of , weaken, as by euphemism If you do not mince your words, you tell sb sth, unpleasant without making any effort to be polite or to avoid upsetting them. I never mince words, you know that. ????

    72. torn--- tear---destroy the peace of to divide with doubt, uncertainty, agitate, torment He was agitated and torn, not knowing what was the right thing to do. a heart torn by grief

    73. swivel --- v. move round The chair swiveled to the right when he tried it. 1) If you swivel or swivel round, you turn round quickly, especially when you are in a sitting position. 2) If you swivel your head or eyes in a particular direction, you turn your head or eyes in that direction, so that you can look at sth.

    74. wax increase in strength, size/ grow, extend, enlarge

    75. wane decrease , fail, diminish, sink If sth waxes and wanes, it first increases and then decreases over a period of time. eg. My feelings for John wax and wane. The popularity of the film stars waxed and waned.

    76. comply act on a accordance with a request, order etc.

    77. bunch collect, gather in bunches (here) stand up

    78. Deal -- an arrangement to the advantage of both sides, often in business bargain, transaction

    79. loom --- appear ???? to come into sight without a clear form, esp. in a way that appears very large and unfriendly, causing fear. If sth. looms, it appears as a problem or event that is approaching, or that will soon happen, a rather literary use. eg. This looms as a big question for many new parents.

    80. no small Understatement---Restraint or lack of emphasis in expression, as for rhetorical effect. .?????, ?? litotes --- A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite, as in: This is no small problem. ???, ?????, ??? (?????????????, ?:no easy ?? very difficult, not bad ?? very good ?)

    81. dimension -- a measurement in any one direction, extent

    82. wow-dow -- (interjection) an exclamation of surprise, wonder, pleasure etc

    83. wince -- to move suddenly as if drawing the body away from sth unpleasant She winced as she touched the cold body. She winced (mentally) at his angry words.

    84. chirp -- make the short sharp sounds of small birds or some insects, say or speak in a way that sounds like this. She chirped (out) her thanks.

    85. doom -- cause to experience or suffer sth unavoidable and unpleasant such as death or destruction From the start, the plan was doomed to failure (to fail). We are doomed to unhappiness. He was doomed to be killed in a car crash.

    86. -- proof resistant to, make to give protection against fire-proof waterproof watch a bullet-proof car a sound-proof room

    87. metaphor: Polly's mind -- the extinct crater of a volcano extinct -- no longer burning Her Intelligence -- embers ( ashes of a dying fire) ??

    88. crater --- the round bowl-shaped mouth of a volcano

    89. ember -- (usu. pl.) a red-hot piece of wood or coal esp, in a fire that is no longer burning with flames.

    90. admittedly -- by admission or general agreement confessedly

    91. prospect -- future probabilities based on present indications or analyses

    92. hope -- based on desire, with or without any likelihood that the hoped for will happen or materialize Parents have high hopes for their children. A man saves money in the hope that inflation will not wipe it out.

    93. appeal -- to make a strong request for help, support, mercy, beg He appealed to his attacker for mercy.

    94. blue-prints -- a photographic copy of a plan for making a machine or building a house. The plans for improving the educational system have only reached the blueprint stage so far.

    95. pitchblende -- n. ???? a dark shiny substance dug from the earth, from which uranium and radium are obtained. fracture -- break, crack, split

    96. hypothesis -- an idea which is thought suitable to explain the facts about sth. an idea which is suggested as a possible explanation for a particular situation or condition, but which has not yet been proved to be correct. eg. People have proposed all kinds of hypothesis about what these things are.

    97. cute 1. clever, shrewd 2. pretty, attractive, esp in a dainty way

    98. argue -- general word a reasoned presentation of views or a heated exchange of opinion amounting to a quarrel They argued vociferously over who should pay the bill.

    99. argue The MP argued his position with such cogency and wit that even his opponents were impressed. ????????????????????????,????????????????

    100. debate -- argue formally, usually under the control of a referee and according to a set of regulations. The House of Commons debated the proposal for three weeks.

    101. hamstring to cut the hamstring destroying the ability to walk a cord-like tendon at the back of the leg, joining a muscle to a bone claw-- scratch, clutch, as with claws (nails) scrape -- scratch, cut the surface of slightly

    102. Over and over Over and over again I gave examples and pointed out the mistakes in her thinking . I kept emphasizing all this without stopping. to hammer away to keep emphasizing or talking about let-up stopping, relaxing

    103. She was a fit Here the narrator described the role which he thinks, a wife should play. well-heeled : (American slang) rich, prosperous

    104. fashion -- v. to shape or make (sth) into or out of sth. usually with one's hands or with only a few tools ~ a hat out a leaves ~ some leave into a hat

    105. The time had come The time had come to change our relationship from that of teacher and student to that of lovers. academic: scholastic; educational; of students,teachers. romantic: of lovemaking or courting

    106. constellation -- a group of fixed stars often having a name Languish -- become or be lacking in strength or will shambling -- walking awkwardly, dragging the feet

    107. hulk a heavy, awkward person

    108. surge -- 1) move esp. forward, in or like powerful waves. The crowd surged past him. 2) (of feeling) to arise powerfully Anger surged (up) within him.

    109. darn -- damn (euph) adv. used for giving force to an expression, good or bad a ~ fool He ran damn fast.

    110. croak -- speak with a rough voice as if one has a sore throat, utter in a deep, hoarse tone.

    111. playful--- A playful action or remark is light-hearted and friendly rather than serious or hostile.

    112. That did it. -- That was the final straw. That made me lose my patience. That make me lose my self-control This idiomatic phrase is used very often in English and the meaning depends largely on the context in which it is used.

    113. That did it. -- "that" -- what has gone before "Polly's last answer" "it" -- the result or consequence brought about by "that"

    114. bellow -- roar with a reverberating sound as a bull cry out loudly, as in anger

    115. reel back -- step away suddenly and unsteadily, as after a blow or shock When she hit him, he reeled back and almost fell.

    116. overcome -- be overwhelmed If you are overcome by a feeling, you feel it very strongly I was overcome by a sense of failure. He was overcome with astonishment.

    117. infamy wicked behavior, public dishonor, being shameful/ disgraceful infamous well known for wicked, evil behavior. infamous action, wicked, shameful, disgraceful

    118. rat -- metaphor (Am. sl.) used for describing a sneaky, contemptible person.

    119. modulate adjust, vary the pitch, intensity of the voice Some people are able to modulate their voices according to the size of the room in which they speak.

    120. jitterbug -- 1. a quick active popular dance of the 1940's 2. a person who did this sort of dance Am. sl. a person who is very nervous jitters -- n. jittery -- adj. nervous, unstable

    121. Frankenstein The young student in Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797--1851) romance of that name (1818), a classic horror story. Frankenstein made a soulless monster out of corpses from church-yards and dissecting-rooms and endued (??)it with life by galvanism.(????) The tale shows the creature longed for sympathy, but was shunned (??) by everyone and became the instrument of dreadful retribution (??)on the student who usurped the prerogative (??)of the creator

    122. The main idea of this lesson: It is about a law student who tries to marry the girl after suitable re-education, but he's been too clever for his own good. The narrator, Dobie Gillis, a freshman in a law school, is the protagonist

    123. Protagonist: a law school student very young clever over-conceited -- cool, logical, keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, astute, powerful, precise, penetrating

    124. Antagonists 1. Petey Burch -- pitiful, dump, roommate, faddist 2. Polly Espy --- beautiful, gracious, stupid

    125. III. Organizational Pattern 4 sections Sect. I para 1-3 It is the author's note. 1. The author's idea about this story. 2. The author's idea about the purpose of this story.

    126. III. Organizational Pattern Sect II para. 4 --59 the bargain between the law student and his roommate over the exchange of the girl,

    127. III. Organizational Pattern sub-divisions: 1) p4 introduction of the narrator -- protagonist 2) p5-21 introduction of the first antagonist -- Petey Burch He downgrades his roommate, who has nothing upstairs. 3) p22 -- 27 introduction of he second antagonist -- Polly Espy

    128. III. Organizational Pattern 4) p 28--40 sounding out / finding out the relationship between Petey and Polly. 5) p.40 --59 unethical transaction over Polly The student gives the raccoon coat the roommate wants, and his roommate gives his girl friend in return. They have a kind of deal.

    129. III. Organizational Pattern Sect III. para 60 -- 124 the teaching of 8 logical fallacies 10 sub-divisions: 1. p60 --61 a survey, first date with the girl, first impression of the girl. He tries to find out how stupid she is.

    130. III. Organizational Pattern 2. p62 -- 74 the teaching of Dicto Simpliciter 3. P75 -- 79 the teaching of Hasty Generalization 4. p80--85 Post Hoc 5. p86 --96 Contradictory Premises 6. p97--98 interposition, He wants to give the girl back.

    131. III. Organizational Pattern 7. p99 --104 Ad Misericordiam 8. p105--108 False Analogy 9. p109-- 114 Hypothesis Contrary to Fact 10.p 115--124 Poisoning the Well

    132. III. Organizational Pattern Sect.IV. para125 the ending of the story backfiring of all the arguments The girl learns her lessons too well. She uses all the logical fallacies to fight back her teacher.

    133. Pay attention to the change of his emotions: 1. favoring her with a smile 2. chuckled with amusement 3. chuckled with somewhat less amusement 4. forcing a smile/ ground my teeth 5. croaked, dashed perspiration from my brow 6. bellowing like a bull

    134. IV. The chief attraction of this lesson It's humor The whole story is a piece of light, humorous satire, satirizing a smug, self-conceited freshman in a law school.

    135. IV. the chief attraction of this lesson Why : 1) the title The title is humorous. The writer wants the readers to conclude that "love" is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic.

    136. IV. the chief attraction of this lesson 2) the author's note "spongy", "limp", "flaccid" are specific characteristics of his essay. He is joking, which indicates that the whole story is humorous. 3) the contrast -- the law student & the girl & Petey boasting himself ----- downgrading the others the student ---- the girl

    137. IV. the chief attraction of this lesson 4) the ending of the story the raccoon coat which the law student despises and give it to his roommate for the exchange of his girl friend has finally become the rootcause of his losing his girl friend. 5) the clever choice of the names Pettey ---- pity Espy ---- I spy

    138. V. Language features: 1. American colloquialism 2. Informal style short sentences elliptical sentences --- to increase the tempo of the story dashes 3. rhetorical devices

    139. V. Language features: 4. sharp contrast in the language 1) the law student uses ultra learned terms standard English 100% correct 2) clipped vulgar forms, slang words gee, magnif, terrif, pshaw, 5. inverted sentences

    140. V. Language features: What effect does the language have on the readers: 1. vivid 2. colorful 3. informal

    141. Exercise 1. Fads enjoy very brief popularity, which fashions are likely to be longer-lasting. Also, "fad" has a pejorative connotation. A fad is a cheap sort of fashion, somewhat debased. To be described as fashionable is a compliment. However, to be swayed by fads is to show a weakness for sudden and brief trends.

    142. Exercise 2. "Incredible" means unbelievable. It comes from the Latin "in" (not), and "credibitis"(credible). "Incredulous" means disbelieving or skeptical. It is not as strong as "incredible"

    143. Exercise 3. "Eager suggests strong interest or desire. "Passionate" is nearly the same but generally is used in a more intense way, to express a degree of emotion slightly greater than "eager". 4. "Feeling" and Emotions" are often considered interchangeable, though "emotions" is often considered the stronger word.

    144. Exercise 5. "Revealed" is the better word here, with its connotation of making known what has been kept secret. "Showed" is a more general word and, while acceptable, is not as precise.

    145. Exercise 6. To be "inclined" is to be disposed to do something, to have a tendency. To be tempted is to be attracted to something in a strong way, though again these two words are very close in meaning, I would rate "tempted" as the stronger verb.

    146. Exercise 7. "Exasperation" is extreme annoyance or irritation. "Disappointed" indicates a degree of frustration less extensive than "exasperation". Again the author has chosen the stronger of the alternatives.

    147. Exercise 8. Tolerant here implies endurance of Pollys faults, an ability to endure her stupidity. Indulgent means lenient( ???) , forgiving, and the inner pain and difficulty implied by "tolerant"

    148. Exercise 9. Merriment is gay conviviality(??), and hilarity(??). It is a much stronger word than "amusement", which refers to being pleased or entertained. Amusement is not so strong an emotion as merriment. 10. Languish means to become weak or feeble, to become listless. To suffer a lot is a vague, broad term. Languish is a better word in this case.

    149. Ex. III. 1. It's humorous, thanks to the word "fallacy", one commonly used in logic. The tale not only gives us a clue of the nature of our narrator's passion, but reflects on the fallacy of his own love for Polly and fallacy in his seemingly well-wrought plan.

    150. Ex. III. 2. Para 4 is a good example of the author's attitude toward himself. The audacious (brave) pride is so great that we can quickly see it is a parody. The author realizes that at 18 he felt smarter than he really was -- he was blind to his own ignorance. He makes fun of himself throughout.

    151. Ex. III. 3. Its purpose is to entertain in a light-hearted way. There is no pretence to teaching us anything, but simply to give us a few chuckles. This is hinted at in the author's note. 4. Pollys language is trendy( ???), inane(???), vulgar(???), and meaningless. It illustrates, until the end of the story. It shows the limits of her weak mind.

    152. Ex. III. 5. The narrator has learned logic as a subject in school, when he tries to apply his knowledge to real life, he fails miserably. He sees what goes on in the classroom is divorced from real life. He tries to make Polly forget the fallacies he had taught her. 6. The topic sentence is "He was a torn man". This idea is developed by a series of details that describe Petey's confused state.

    153. Ex. III. 7. Because he begged Polly's love, which was refused. He was going to get the same result as Frankenstein, who created a monster that destroyed him, not as Pygmalion, who was loved by the beautiful statue he had fashioned. The narrator's allusions come naturally, from his experience. He has probably read Pygmalion and Frankenstein for a college course, so the allusions do seem apt.

    154. Ex. III. 8. When the narrator finally succeeds in teaching Polly, she learns logic too well and turns it against him after his declaration of love. In her decision to choose Petey she had used the logic the narrator taught her. Had he not given away his raccoon coat and taught her logic lessons he might have had Polly as his own. The irony is that he succeeded to well.

    155. Ex. III. keen -- It suggests unusual ability or perceptiveness adding to them a vigorous forceful ability to grass complex problem 1. The keen ears of the dog heard the sound long before we did. 2. He exercised keen judgment to rescue the drowning. ?????,??????????

    156. calculating -- It means coldly planning and thinking about future actions and esp. whether they will be good or bad for oneself ???,??? He was regarded as a calculating man. To Kate, calculating and cold, the most important thing was power.

    157. perspicacious -- fml. It suggests one has or shows an unusual power or ability of keen judgment and understanding ??,?? Tom's understanding to the matter is ~. ????????????????

    158. perspicacious -- fml These were the fundamental difficulties, but few men were perspicacious enough to appreciate them. ????????,?????????????????

    159. acute -- It suggests a sensitivity and receptivity to the small differences that was not notices by others, also implies a high-keyed state of nervous attention that will not be lasting. He is an acute observer and thinker.

    160. astute -- It means clever and having a thorough or deep understanding, stemming from a scholarly or experienced mind that is full command of a given field. ???;???? He is astute and capable. ?????? They are astute financiers. ??????????????

    161. intelligent ??,?? ???,??,?? He was intelligent enough to turn off the gas when he was out. He was intelligent enough to understand my meaning form my gestures

    162. bright --- (??,???)??,????,??? He is a bright child, as you can tell when you talk with him.

    163. brilliant --- ????,???,?????? stronger than bright he was considered as a brilliant speaker. ????????????

    164. alert --- ???? A sparrow is very alert in its movement. clever, bright , smart --- more colloquial clever --- bright , skillful, having a quick mind smart -- (AmE)