Personality MBUS 612 Prof. Elloy
Personality • Personality is an organized whole • Personality appears to be organized into patterns • Personality is a product of social and culture environments • Personality involves both common and unique characteristics • Definition: An individuals' personality is a relatively stable set of characteristics, tendencies and temperaments that have been significantly formed by inferitance and by social, cultural and environmental factors.
The Big Five Personality Dimensions • Extroversion: Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive • Agreeableness: Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted • Conscientiousness: Dependable, responsible, achevement oriented, persistent • Emotional stability: Relaxed, secure, unworried • Openness to experience: Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded Research finding: Conscientiousness is the best (but not a strong) predictor of job performance
Barriers to Accurate Perception • Stereotyping: A tendency to assign attributes to people solely on the basis of their class or category • Halo Effects: A tendency to allow the traits exhibited by people to influence our impressions of their other traits • Implicit Personality Theory: A tendency to have an a priori picture of what other people are like that colors how we see them • Selective Perception: Systematically screening out information we don't wish to hear • Projection: A tendency to ascribe to others the negative characteristics or feelings we have about ourselves
Organizational Commitment Relative strength of an individual's identification and involvement in an organization. Three characteristics: 1. Strong belief in and acceptance of organizational goals and values 2. Willingness to exert conscious effort on behalf of the organization. 3. Strong desire to maintain membership in the organization.
Self-Efficacy • Self-efficacy: "A person's belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task." • Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs: • Prior experience • Behavior models • Persuation from others • Assessment of physical/emotional state
Type A & Type B • Type A's: • work faster on many tasks • generally complain less about hard work • better able to handle tasks involving multiple demands • Type B's: • do better than Type A's tasks requiring delayed responses • most members of top management are Type B's • do better than Type A's in tasks that involve complex • judgement, accuracy rather than speed, and working as • part of a team
Machiavellianism • People can be rapidly and easily manipulated for your own • ends • Humility is harmful • It is better to be feared than loved • Be totally pragmatic and amoral • How it operates: • High machs • - a pattern of cool detachment in their dealings with others • - work cooly and pragmatically toward the goals they are • seeking • - resistant to influences from others and skilled in exerting • such influence themselves • - more likely to use such tactics as ingratiation
Locus of Control People tend to attribute the causes of their behavior primarily to either themselves or environmental factors. A. People who believe they control the events that affect their lives are said to possess an internal locus of control. B. Those who believe their performance is the product of circumstances beyond their immediate control are said to possess an external locus of control.
Research Findings on Locus of Control • Internals display greater work motivation • Internals have stronger expectations that effort leads to performance • Internals exhibit higher performance on tasks involving learning or problem solving, when performance leads to valued rewards • There is a stronger relationship between job satisfaction and performance for internals than externals
A Model of How Self-Efficacy Beliefs Can Pave the Way for Success or Failure
Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale • Novelty Score: Extent to which you are tolerant of new, unfamiliar information or situations. • Complexity Score: Extent to which you are tolerant of multiple, distinctive or unrelated information. • Insolubility Score: Extent to which you are tolerant of problems that are very difficult to solve. In general, the more tolerant people are of novelty, complexity an insolubility – the more likely they are to succeed as managers in information – rich, ambiguous environments.
Characteristics of Individuals with Internal Locus of Control • Engage in actions to improve their environment • Place greater emphasis on striving for achievement • Be more inclined to develop their own skills • Less alienated from the work environment • More satisfied with their work • Outperformed externals in stressful situations • Higher levels of job involvement • Rely more on persuasion and expertise as a source of power • Display greater motivation
Locus of Control • Attitude people develop regarding the extent to which they are in control of their destinies • Internal Locus of Control: Believe they control the events and consequences that affect their lives • External Locus of Control: Performance is the product of circumstances beyond their control
Descriptors of Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Oriented-Behavior (FIRO-B) Needs
Self-Efficacy Implications for Managers • Recruiting/Selection/Job Assignments • Job Design • Training and Development • Coaching • Rewards
Self-Esteem "A belief about one's own self worth based on an overall self-evaluation."
Organization-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE) "Self-perceived value that individuals have of themselves as organization members acting within an organizational context."
The Determinants and Consequences of Organiazation-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE) • Determinants of OBSE - Managerial respect - Organizational structure - Job complexity • Factors Influenced by OBSE - Global self-esteem - Intrinsic motivation - Citizenship behavior - Job performance - General satisfaction - Organizational commitment and satisfaction
Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation • Inclusion The need to establish and maintain a relationship with other people. • Control The need to maintain a satisfactory balance of power and influence in relationships. • Affection The need to form close and personal relationships with others.
Interpersonal Orientation • Need for Inclusion - Everyone needs to maintain a relationship with other people, to be included in their activities, and to include them in one's own activities. • Need for Control - Need to maintain a satisfactory balance of power and influence in relationships. 1. The need to control others, or expressed control 2. The need to be controlled, or wanted control • Need for Affection - The need to form close personal relationships with others 1. The need for expressing affection toward other people 2. The need for wanting affection to be expressed toward them