School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut January 24, 2007 www.pbis.org www.swis.org George.email@example.com
PURPOSE Enhance capacity of school teams to provide the best behavioral supports for all students…...
MAIN TRAINING OBJECTIVES • Establish leadership team • Establish staff agreements • Build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems • Develop individualized action plan for SW-PBS • Data: Discipline Data, EBS Self-Assessment Survey, Team Implementation Checklist • Presentation for school • Organize for upcoming school year
Getting to these objectives • Rationale, context, & features • Implementation practices, structures, & processes • Outcomes & examples • Brief activities & team action planning
TOP FOUR 2005 Lack of financial support (since 2000) Overcrowded schools Lack of discipline & control Drug use #1 SPOT >2000 lack of financial support 1991-2000 drug use <1991 lack of discipline Rose, L. C., & Gallup. A. M. (2005). 37th annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of the public’s attitudes toward the public schools. Kappan, September, 41-59.
Why Bother? • In 1 year, 1 school (880) had 5100 ODRs, 1 student received 87 ODRs, & 1 teacher gave out 273 ODRs • 2 high schools used law enforcement to give students $113 fines for incidents of profanity • In 1 urban school district: 2004-05, 400 kindergartners were expelled • In 1 state 55% white, 73% Latino, & 88% Black 4th graders aren’t proficient readers • UConn has no behavior/classroom management course for teachers or administrators • 1st response to school violence is “get tougher” • In 1 K-3 school in Mar, no teacher could give reading levels of their students • 2nd grade student receives “body sock” & “lemon drop” therapy to treat violent school behavior • In 1 state 7% of “high experience” teachers & 17% of reading specialists can identify at least 2 indicators of early reading success (e.g., phonmic awareness, fluency) • Across nation, students who are truant are given out-of-school suspensions
2001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations • Establish “intolerant attitude toward deviance” • Break up antisocial networks…change social context • Improve parent effectiveness • Increase “commitment to school” • Increase academic success • Create positive school climates • Teach & encourage individual skills & competence
School-based Prevention & Youth Development ProgrammingCoordinated Social Emotional & Academic Learning Greenberg et al. (2003) American Psychologist • Teach children social skills directly in real context • “Foster respectful, supportive relations among students, school staff, & parents” • Support & reinforce positive academic & social behavior through comprehensive systems • Invest in multiyear, multicomponent programs • Combine classroom & school- & community-wide efforts • Precorrect & continue prevention efforts
Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety • Students, staff, & community must have means of communicating that is immediate, safe, & reliable • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting student-teacher-family relationships are important • High rates of academic & social success are important • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting school environment/climate is important for all students • Metal detectors, surveillance cameras, & security guards are insufficient deterents
Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety Early Correlates/Indicators • Significant change in academic &/or social behavior patterns • Frequent, unresolved victimization • Extremely low rates of academic &/or social success • Negative/threatening written &/or verbal messages
Competing, Inter-related National Goals • Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc. • Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learning • Improve student character & citizenship • Eliminate bullying • Prevent drug use • Prepare for postsecondary education • Provide a free & appropriate education for all • Prepare viable workforce • Affect rates of high risk, antisocial behavior • Leave no child behind • Etc….
SW-PBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior • Get Tough (practices) • Train-&-Hope (systems)
Worry #1“Teaching” by Getting Tough Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”
Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!” • Clamp down & increase monitoring • Re-re-re-review rules • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences • Establish “bottom line” ...Predictable individual response
Reactive responses are predictable…. When we experience aversive situation, we want select interventions that produce immediate relief • Remove student • Remove ourselves • Modify physical environment • Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others
When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” • Zero tolerance policies • Increased surveillance • Increased suspension & expulsion • In-service training by expert • Alternative programming …..Predictable systems response!
Erroneous assumption that student… • Is inherently “bad” • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” • Will be better tomorrow…….
But….false sense of safety/security! • Fosters environments of control • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior • Shifts accountability away from school • Devalues child-adult relationship • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Science of behavior has taught us that students…. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function
Non-examples of Function-Based approach “Function” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence • “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.” • “Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.” • “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”
Development “Map” • 2+ years of team training • Annual “booster” events • Coaching/facilitator support @ school & district levels • Regular self-assessment & evaluation data • Develoment of local/district leadership teams • State/region & Center on PBIS for coordination & TA
Role of “Coaching” • Liaison between school teams & PBS leadership team • Local facilitation of process • Local resource for data-based decision making
Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement 4 PBS Elements OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
http://rtckids.fmhi.usf.edu Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision makers.Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. Louis De la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child & Family Studies, Research & Training Center for Children’s Mental Health.
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” CO PBS Agreements FCPS Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
Team-led Process Non-Teaching Meetings Family Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status Representation Specialized Support Administrator Team Community Data-based Decision Making Administrator Student Teaching Communications Start with Team that “Works.”
Leadership Team Review 1 Minute Attention Please • Work as team for 9 minutes • Complete “Establishing Team Membership” (1 p. 4-5) • Touch “Committee Group Work” (6) • Touch “Guidelines for Conducting Leadership Team Meetings” (3) • Touch “EBS Self-Assessment Survey” (4) • Present 2-3 “big ideas” from your group (1 min. reports)
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
3-4 Year Commitment Top 3 School- Wide Initiatives 3-Tiered Prevention Logic Agreements & Supports Coaching & Facilitation Administrative Participation Dedicated Resources & Time
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
Self-Assessment Efficient Systems of Data Management Existing Discipline Data Data-based Action Plan Team-based Decision Making Multiple Systems Evidence- Based Practices SWIS
Office Discipline Referrals • Definition • Kid-Teacher-Administrator interaction • Underestimation of actual behavior • Improving usefulness & value • Clear, mutually exclusive, exhaustive definitions • Distinction between office v. classroom managed • Continuum of behavior support • Positive school-wide foundations • W/in school comparisons
How often? Who? What? Where? When? How much? If problem, Which students/staff? What system? What intervention? What outcome? + If many students are making same mistake, consider changing system….not students + Start by teaching, monitoring & rewarding…before increasing punishment Do we need to tweak our action plan?
Discipline Data Review 1 Minute Attention Please • 8 minutes • Complete “Discipline Referral Data Self-Assessment” Checklist (9) • Touch “Data-Decision Making” (B) • Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Classroom Setting Systems Nonclassroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems