Ionic Bonding Ken Rogers Miami Killian
Ionic bonding - the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions. cation – positive ion anion – a negative ion For example the substance sodium chloride, NaCl, is a substance held together by ionic bonding. Here’s how that happens.
3s 2s 1s 2p 1s22s2 2p63s1 Its orbital notation is: Sodium (atomic number 11) has 11 electrons. The closest noble gas to sodium is neon, #10 For sodium to achieve the stability of neon, sodium would needto lose 1 electron.
3s 2s 3p 1s 2p 1s22s2 2p63s2 3p5 Its orbital notation is: ? Chlorine (atomic number 17) has 17 electrons. The closest noble gas to chlorine is argon, #18 For chlorine to achieve the stability of argon, chlorine would need to gain 1 electron.
3s 2s 3p 1s 2p Because Na needs to lose an electron and Cl needs to gain an electron . . . Na 3s 2s 1s 2p Cl
1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3p5 +11 p +17 p - 11 e- - 10 e- e- - 18 e- - 17 e- +1 -1 Na Na+1 Cl Cl-1
+11 p +17 p - 10 e- - 18 e- +1 -1 Na+1 Cl-1 cation? anion?
1 Cl Na 1 Brackets are put around the ion to show the electrons are NOT being shared.
+11 p +11 p -10 e- - 11 e- +1 Ready for a joke? Girls read aloud what’s in pink; guys read aloud what’s in blue. Oh, I’m sorry. Are you all right? Are you sure? You lost an electron. Yeh. I’m OK Yes. I’m all right. I’m positive! You’re sure? e- Atoms that lose electrons become positively charged. (cations) Atoms that gain electrons become negatively charged. (anions)
And because opposites attract, I do. I do. they bond.
Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Ionic substances (electrolytes) bond by a process of transferring electrons to become stable. An electron is transferred from sodium (Na) to chorine. . forming two oppositely charged ions. . Na Na which attract each other forming an ionic bond. Chloride is surrounded by sodium ions, sodium, in turn, is surrounded by chloride which is surrounded by sodium and so on.
Ionic compounds form 3-D structures. Crystal Lattice
Formula unit – the simplest ratio of atoms from which the formula of an ionic compound can be established. NaCl
Ionic bonds take place when a metal combines with a nonmetal. Metals have 1 to 4 valence electrons. Nonmetals have from 4 to 8 valence electrons. The metal loses its electrons to achieve an octet. While the nonmetal gains electrons to achieve an octet. metal + nonmetal a ionic substance
metalloids metals noble gases nonmetals metal + nonmetal a ionic substance
Which gains, which loses? 1 1s2 2s2 2p5 2p6 2 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s 1s2 2s2 2p5 2p6 +20 p +9 p +9 p e- - 20 e- e- - 18 e- - 19 e- - 9 e- - 10 e- - 9 e- - 10 e- +1 +2 -1 -1 Ca+2 Ca+1 Ca F F F-1 F-1
1s2 2s2 2p6 1s2 2s2 2p6 Ca+2 F-1 F-1 CaF2 calcium fluoride 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 another salt crystal cation? anion?
1 1 2 F F Ca The formula unit for this ionic compound is CaF2.
Predicting Ionic Charge Na (11 e-s)
Predicting Ionic Charge Na (11 e-s) Na+1
Predicting Ionic Charge Cl (17 e-s)
Predicting Ionic Charge Cl (17 e-s) Cl-1
Predicting Ionic Charge Ca (20 e-s)
Predicting Ionic Charge Ca (20 e-s) Ca+2
Predicting Ionic Charge F (9 e-s)
Predicting Ionic Charge F (9 e-s) F-1
Predicting Ionic Charge O (8 e-s)
Predicting Ionic Charge O (8 e-s) O-2
Predicting Ionic Charge Mg (12 e-s)
Predicting Ionic Charge Mg (12 e-s) Mg+2
Predicting Ionic Charge S (16 e-s)
Predicting Ionic Charge S (16 e-s) S-2
Predicting Ionic Charge N (7 e-s)
Predicting Ionic Charge N (7 e-s) N-3
Ionic bonding - the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions. • composed of cations and anions • is an electrolyte • is a salt • crystalline • high melting point
So, what’s this? NaCl + Assault and battery