“Power Processor” An Enabling “Power Chip” for Electric Utility Applications Harshad Mehta, Ph.D. Founder, President & CEO Silicon Power Corporation Harshad_mehta@siliconpower.com 610-648-3925 February 1-2, 2006 EPAC Workshop Power processors convert, condition and manage Power in utility grid or distributed generation system.
Controller What is a “Power Processor”? “A Versatile and scalable device that integrates Power chips, thermal management and control software in a compact and affordable package.” Input Filter • Converts electrical power from • one form to another • Conform to industry standards • Multiple functionality • Scalable, affordable, reliable sensors Power Chips cooling Wide spread application of Power Processors will significantly enhance efficiency and reliability in high power networks.
Key 1: A 25-year advance in high power device process in a single step with the commercialization of a 6 kV “Super” GTO from an IC foundry in Silicon Valley (ONR, ARL, EPRI) Key 2: A breakthrough in die package size, cost and reliability with the wire-bond free thinPak (ONR) Key 3: A significant improvement in thermal performance, both die and package (ONR, ARL) The “Quiet Revolution” in Ultra-high Power Technology Three key advances in technology make “Power Processors” a reality with a wide range of applications
160,000 cells/cm2 SGTO GTO ~ 50 cells /cm2 “Super”-GTO, an IC Foundry-Fabricated GTO with a thinPak package Key 1: Advantages: Cell structure 3000 x denser Upper transistor >100x improved Forward drop greatly reduced Three times lower turn-off switching loss Turn-on improved by orders of magnitude Turn-off no longer cell limited Fabricated in 3.3 cm2 die in 6 inch silicon at very high yield.
Key 2: “ThinPak”, a new packaging paradigm, eliminates wire bonding May 2000 PCIM article introduces thinPak as a new paradigm in semiconductor package technology ThinPak package at various stages of assembly. thinPak for 6kV silicon SGTO Features: A) Ultra-compact, near zero parasitics, and extremely reliable B) low cost and inexpensive to automate, ideal for module manufacture 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 8 8 8 Underside of a lid array sheet.
Key 3: The third Key Advantage is thermal! A) Thermal spreading is 1) from separated (here 24) heat sources and 2) in x, y and z, not just z alone. This lowers thermal impedance several-fold. There are also no dry interfaces in the heat path. B) Higher junction ratings (due to advanced processing) simplify cooling & increase current capability The net result is a 4.6 times higher allowable module dissipation despite being 1-side cooled.
A slightly larger lid allows room to mount 8 parallel 1m-Ohm series FET’s (shown with their alumina alignment fixture) in the lid attach manufacturing step! ThinPak Assembly for Integrated Gate SETO module S-ETO (SGTO-based) provides the same advantages – and one more. The thinPak lid provides an ideal platform for incorporating the series FET’s right into the module! GTO & Standard ETO Similar Performance (ETO – supported by DoE, TVA, EPRI)
No dry interfaces No wire bonds 3.0”x3.8”x0.55” 80 kA pulse, 8-die building block (goes to 200 kA at 1.39 x larger area with a 2x area SGTO die) Typical example: 2kA, 5-6kV ARL module
Switch volume: ~ 4 liter Sensor volume: ~ 2 liters System bus volume: ~ 6 liters Current sensor locations Optical input input power, 12 volts, 100mA Low inductance power connections Switch gate drive board Level gate drive boards DoD Application: ARL 400 kA Pulse Switch 4 levels, each with six 6.5 kV (typical) thinPak SGTO modules
Magnetic Pulse Welding • Offers ability to join aluminum to steel, as well as other combinations, which offers significant lightening of automotive structures. • MP Welding has no consumables other than electricity. • Dana corporation, a tier one automotive supplier, has currently upgraded from old ignitron technology to an SPCO switch, resulting in doubled power output and 75X longer switch life in pulse welding machine. 250kA Switch for Dana Corp
Snubbers, voltage dividers and level gate drives double system volume and cost 4 series 2 parallel Note: Appropriate snubber, voltage divider and gate drives are included on the underside of each level board! Technology comparison of 4-level assemblies of similar net silicon device area
S-ETO Based High Power Solid State Current Limiter (SSCL) • Eliminates the need to upgrade circuit breakers in entire substation • Compact size allows for installation in urban/high density environments • Improvements over today’s technology (mechanical breaker) • More than 10x faster • No moving parts/contact wear • Environmentally Friendly (SF6 eliminated) • Current Limiting protect downstream equipment from damage and allows proper system coordination SSCL Topology • S-ETO Switch Advantages: • No Moving Parts → nothing to wear out • Advantages over conventional semiconductor switches: • Fabricated using modern planar IC process • Higher Current Density • Faster switching • Compact packaging → large clamps not required • Faster Switching → leads to smaller size/lower cost Isolation Switch: Provides Safety Isolation for Maintenance Current Limiter: Limits Current after initial interruption Interrupter: S-ETO based, interrupts initial fault current Interrupter Assist: Assists turn-off for very high fault currents
More Electric Aircraft Hybrid Vehicles The Digital Home DDX Program Electro-Magnetic Aircraft Launch EMALS All Electric Initiatives FACTS
Summary/Recommendations • Power processors – Aggressive Technology push/market pull (SGTO/SETO) • PC Industry Model – Standardization, modular blocks, lower cost • Well Coordinated Initiatives – Develop standards/performance specs • Utilities – Demand standards/competitive sourcing • Manufacturers – Push technology/reliability, lower cost, high volume • Academics – Generate/support new talents/ideas • Government/DoE – Focused leverage seed support, play catalyst role, • promote aggressive development/wide range of applications