Unit 3 Latin America Mexico, Central America, South America and the Caribbean
Landform Vocabulary • Mountains • Plains • Pampas • Island • Strait • Gulf • Plateau • River • Highland • Define each of these words in your notes.
The Amazon and The Andes • The Amazon River in South America is the largest river (widest and water volume) in the world while the Nile River in Africa is the longest. • The largest river means it has more tributaries and distributaries than any other river. • The Andes Mountains are the longest and second highest mountain range in the world. Mount Aconcagua is the highest mountain in Latin America and the Western Hemisphere. The Andes were created due to plate tectonics.
Learning Log # 1 • Identify: • the types of jobs people have who live in plains areas • types of jobs people have who live along rivers • types of jobs people have who live in the mountains
Migration to and from Central America, South America, and the Caribbean • Research Questions to be answered: • What pre-Columbian civilizations existed in this area? • What country first colonized the area? • Why was this region colonized? • How was independence gained? • What ethnic groups are found in the region? • What were migrations in the past like?
El Niño, La Niña, hurricanes, global climate change, earthquakes, flooding, volcanoes, erosion, weathering, and deforestation. Natural and Human Processes
Learning Log # 2 • Predict the effects of the natural and human processes on each of the three regions (Central America, South America, and the Caribbean) and indicate how the natural and human processes contribute to the identity of the place. Determine where each of these natural and human processes occurs and why natural and human processes are more likely to occur in some areas rather than others. Predict the impact of these natural and human processes on Latin America in the future.
Population Pyramids and the Demographic Transition Model • The "Demographic Transition" is a model that describes population change over time. It is based on an interpretation begun in 1929 by the American demographer Warren Thompson, of the observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the past two hundred years or so.
The Demographic Transition Model • Stage 1: Low growth rate, high birth rates, high death rates, pre-industrial economy • Stage 2: Rising growth rate, declining death rate, high birth rate, early industrial economy • Stage 3: High growth rate, declining death rate, declining birth rate, advanced industrial economy • Stage 4: Low growth rate, low birth rate, low death rate, advanced economy
Rule of 72 • Have students predict country and world populations by applying the Rule of 72. The rule of 72 is used to determine the amount of time it takes for something to double, in this case population. • Compute as follows: • Population growth rate equals the birth rate minus death rate (expressed as a percentage). • Dividing 72 by the growth rate produces the number of years needed for population to double. • Sample for North America: 72/0.6 = 120
Population Anticipation Guide • Before the lesson on population, read each statement and circle if you agree or disagree with the statement. After the lesson, go back to each statement and decide whether “before” responses need to be changed. For all statements provide evidence from the lesson for “after” responses. • Before After • 1. The world is nearly overpopulated. Agree Disagree Agree Disagree • Evidence _________________________ • _________________________________ • __________________________________ • 2. There are adequate resources for the Agree Disagree Agree Disagree • population, but they are unevenly • distributed. • Evidence _________________________ • _________________________________ • _________________________________ • 3. The world has disasters affecting both Agree Disagree Agree Disagree • population and natural resources. • Evidence ________________________ • ________________________________ • ________________________________ • _________________________________
Population Pyramid • A population pyramid illustrates the age and genderstructure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.
Age structure: 0-14 years: 20% (male 32,050,686/female 30,719,945) 15-24 years: 13.8% (male 22,112,002/female 21,174,050) 25-54 years: 40.6% (male 63,713,761/female 63,556,345) 55-64 years: 12.1% (male 18,331,065/female 19,711,907) 65 years and over: 13.5% (male 18,424,785/female 24,052,919) (2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.8% (male 16,329,415/female 15,648,127) 15-24 years: 18.2% (male 10,552,581/female 10,420,710) 25-54 years: 40.5% (male 22,287,799/female 24,321,919) 55-64 years: 6.7% (male 3,545,046/female 4,138,139) 65 years and over: 6.7% (male 3,459,939/female 4,271,731) (2012)
The Amazon Rainforest A tour through one of the most beautiful and exciting places in the world!
What is a Rainforest? • Rainforests are dense tropical forests characterized by large amounts of rainfall and biodiversity. • Rainforests can be found in many places on the globe, most located near the equator. The largest rainforest of them all is the Amazon Rainforest.
On this map of the world, the yellow areas indicate the location of rainforests. What do the rainforests have in common? Which continent has the most area covered with rainforests?Data courtesy World Wildlife Fund
Layers of the Rainforest The emergent trees at the very top grow the highest above any of the other trees in the rainforest and get the most sunlight. Animals such as eagles, monkeys, bats, and butterflies live in this layer of the forest. A rain forest is home to thousands of trees of all different types and sizes. Because the rainforest has such a unique arrangement of its trees, the trees have been classified into four different levels.
Layers of the Rainforest The canopy is a the primary layer of the forest, and forms a roof over the two remaining layers. Many monkeys, frogs, lizards, birds, snakes, sloths and small felines live in this layer.
Layers of the Rainforest The understory layer receives little sun, so the plants in this layer rarely grow more than twelve feet in height. Animal inhabitants include small mammals, snakes, frogs, and many insects.
Layers of the Rainforest The lowest layer, called the forest flooris very dark and wet. As a result, few plants grow in this area. The forest floor is covered with decaying leaves, tree roots, and tree branches. Animal inhabitants include insects, arachnids, and large animals such as gorillas, anteaters, wild oars, jaguars, and people. Note: Some sources name a fifth layer, the shrub layer, between the understory and the forest floor.
Animals of the Rainforest This is a Spider Monkey which is actually quite large in size. They like to hang upside-down and swing from branch to branch. The Spider Monkey spends most of the time in the canopy. There are about 40 different species of Toucans. They have large colorful bills in a combination of colors. The bills are used to smash fruits and berries for the bird to eat. The toucan also lives in the canopy. The sloth is an extremely, slow-moving animal that lives in the trees of the canopy. The sloth can have two or three toes. Sloths are nocturnal and sleep during the day. Some sloths can live in the same tree for years! The Poison Arrow Frog has bright colors to warn other animals that they are poisonous. One frog carries enough poison to kill 100 people. They can be red, blue or yellow in color.
Climate in the Amazon Rainforest • Rain falls in the Amazon Rainforest approximately 250 days per year. Rainfall amounts can total approximately 100 inches per year. • The weather is very humid with temperatures averaging between 75º and 85º Fahrenheit. http://www.wcupa.edu/aceer/amigos/cd/rainforest.htm
Why are rainforests important? • The trees in the rainforest produce oxygen that supplies the rest of the world. Humans and animals need oxygen to survive. Since there are so many trees in the rainforest, this environment is very important to life. • The trees provide shelter to a majority of the animals living in the rainforest. Some of these animals are endangered and are close to becoming extinct.
What is happening to the Rainforest? • Sections of the rainforest are disappearing everyday. This is called deforestation. Humans are cutting down areas for the use of lumber, clearing land for new farms, or for road construction. • The plants and animals that live in the areas that are cut down eventually die or must move to find a new home.
CAFTA • On August 5, 2004, the United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic. The CAFTA-DR is the first free trade agreement between the United States and a group of smaller developing economies. This agreement is creating new economic opportunities by eliminating tariffs, opening markets, reducing barriers to services, and promoting transparency. It is facilitating trade and investment among the seven countries and furthering regional integration. • Central America and the Dominican Republic represent the third largest U.S. export market in Latin America, behind Mexico and Brazil. U.S. exports to the CAFTA-DR countries were valued at $19.5 billion in 2009. Combined total two-way trade in 2009 between the United States and Central America and the Dominican Republic was $37.9 billion. • The agreement entered into force for the United States and El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua during 2006, for the Dominican Republic on March 1, 2007, and for Costa Rica on January 1, 2009. With the addition of Costa Rica, the CAFTA-DR is in force for all seven countries that signed the agreement. • On August 15, 2008, the CAFTA-DR Parties implemented important changes to the agreement’s textiles provisions, including changing the rules of origin to ensure that pocket fabric in apparel is sourced from the United States or another CAFTA-DR Party. The Parties also implemented a reciprocal textile input sourcing rule with Mexico. Under this rule, Mexico will provide duty-free treatment on certain apparel goods produced in a Central American country or the Dominican Republic with U.S. input, and the United States will provide reciprocal duty-free treatment under the CAFTA-DR on certain apparel goods produced in a Central American country or the Dominican Republic with Mexican input. These changes will further strengthen and integrate regional textile and apparel manufacturing and create new economic opportunities in the United States and the region.
NAFTA • On January 1, 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico (NAFTA) entered into force. • All remaining duties and quantitative restrictions were eliminated, as scheduled, on January 1, 2008. • NAFTA created the world's largest free trade area, which now links 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. • Trade between the United States and its NAFTA partners has soared since the agreement entered into force. • U.S. goods and services trade with NAFTA totaled $1.6 trillion in 2009 (latest data available for goods and services trade combined). Exports totaled $397 billion. Imports totaled $438 billion. The U.S. goods and services trade deficit with NAFTA was $41 billion in 2009. • The United States has $918 billion in total (two ways) goods trade with NAFTA countries (Canada and Mexico) during 2010.Goods exports totaled $412 billion; Goods imports totaled $506 billion. The U.S. goods trade deficit with NAFTA was $95 billion in 2010. • Trade in services with NAFTA (exports and imports) totaled $99 billion in 2009 (latest data available for services trade). Services exports were $63.8 billion. Services imports were $35.5 billion. The U.S. services trade surplus with NAFTA was $28.3 billion in 2009.
The WTO...... In brief • The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. • The result is assurance. Consumers and producers know that they can enjoy secure supplies and greater choice of the finished products, components, raw materials and services that they use. Producers and exporters know that foreign markets will remain open to them. The result is also a more prosperous, peaceful and accountable economic world. Virtually all decisions in the WTO are taken by consensus among all member countries and they are ratified by members' parliaments. Trade friction is channeled into the WTO's dispute settlement process where the focus is on interpreting agreements and commitments, and how to ensure that countries' trade policies conform with them. That way, the risk of disputes spilling over into political or military conflict is reduced. • By lowering trade barriers, the WTO’s system also breaks down other barriers between peoples and nations.
Complete this chart in your notes to help you write your learning log.
LEARNING LOG • Write a short essay on trade organizations. • The first paragraph should include information about the purpose of trade agreements and benefits of trade agreements to member countries. • The second paragraph should focus on economic interdependence and the disadvantages of trade agreements to members and nonmembers. • The third paragraph should focus on the student’s opinion about trade agreements and if a country should in fact become a member of such an organization.