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Unit 3

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  1. Unit 3 Where Principles Come First

  2. 1. What is the purpose of education?

  3. Education has for its object the formation of character. 教育的目的在于品德的培养。

  4. Education is not an end, but a means to end. 教育不是目的,而是一种达到目的的手段。

  5. An educational system should be one in which the love of learning, rather than the acquisition of facts, is cultivated. 教育应该培养学生酷爱学习,而不仅仅是为了获取事实。

  6. It is wrong to spoon-feed the students. 对学生进行填鸭式教育是错误的。

  7. Education polishes good natures, and corrects bad ones. 教育可以光大善良的天性,纠正邪恶的天性。

  8. 2. How do you understand the following words? Give a man a fish, and you feed him for the day. 授人以鱼,当日满足。 Teach him how to fish, and you feed him for a lifetime. 授人以渔,受益一生。 vs

  9. In-Class Think and Talk Are you satisfied with the educational situation in China? What kind of improvements should be done?

  10. In-Class • encouraging students’ imagination, creativity… • improving the relationship between students and teachers • spreading the idea of “quality teaching” • giving students more freedom in the classroom • teaching students the value of creative thinking • …

  11. In-Class View Your Opinions on Home Schooling

  12. In-Class • In July, 2007, Shanghai, a controversial new school called Meng Mu Tang or House of Mencius Mother, came under the spotlight. The school was trying to operate the unique educational theories on the twelve students aged from four to twelve through ancient teaching methods. The curriculum is based on ancient Chinese teaching methods, and the students spend most of the time studying by themselves or reciting Chinese classics and the works of Shakespeare. They don’t study math or basic language skills. • And after its unusual teaching methods and content were exposed, it has caused intense debate. And in late August, it was shut down by Shanghai's education authorities.

  13. In-Class • So what do you think about the home schooling? • Are you in favor of home education or compulsory education?

  14. Related Information I. Related Information 1. Brief introduction of Hyde The school opened in 1999 with 240 students in grades 7-9 and currently serves 698 students in grades K-4 and 6-12. It will eventually serve more than 1,000 students in grades K-12. To be continued

  15. Related Information The core philosophy of Hyde Leadership is that each individual is gifted with unique potential that defines a destiny. The unique potential is developed through a character-based curriculum that stresses a student-parent-teacher partnership and creates a family-school bond.

  16. Related Information 2. Key Words About Hyde School • Character-Based • Five Words • Five Principles

  17. Related Information Character-based One of Hyde’s basic purposes is to develop students’ character. This focus on character unleashes the deepest motivation in students’ self-discovery. The school helps students answer the following three questions: -Who am I? -Where am I going? -What do I need to do to get there?

  18. Related Information Five Words Our Five Words are what we believe define character:Leadership - I am a leader through asking the best of myself and the best of others.Integrity - I am gifted with a unique potential and conscience as my guide to discovering it.Curiosity - I am responsible for my own learning.Courage - I learn the most by facing challenges and taking risks. Concern - I need a challenging and supportive community in which to develop my character.

  19. Related Information Five Principles Our Five Principles guide the conduct of all the school's activity:Destiny - Each of us is gifted with a unique potential that defines a destiny.Humility - We trust in a power and purpose beyond ourselves.Conscience - We achieve our best through character and conscience. Truth - Truth is our primary guide.Brother's Keeper - We help others achieve their best.

  20. Related Information 3. Focus of Hyde • Attitude more than aptitude • Effort more than ability • Character more than talent

  21. Related Information 4. About Education System The United States has both public schools and private schools. Public schools are government-controlled at the city level, with standards being set partially at the state and federal level. Generally speaking, the city has the most influence on the schools, followed by the state, and finally by the federal government. Funding for public schools comes from all three levels of government, the primary source being local property taxes paid by homeowners. There is no charge for attending public schools.

  22. Related Information Private schools, on the other hand, can be quite expensive to attend. So why do parents send their children to private schools? There are several reasons. One is status. Some private schools are highly regarded, and lend prestige to their students and alumni. Another reason is quality of education, although there are some public schools that offer education superior to private schools. A third reason is wishing to avoid problems associated with a small number of students at certain public schools, including violence and drug use. The other reason is religion. Some parents want their children to attend schools that teach religion as well as academics, which is prohibited by law in the public schools.

  23. Related Information A final trend to discuss in American education is home schooling. This practice, which has been growing in popularity in recent years, involves teaching children in the home, as the name implies. Home schooling is most popular with religious conservatives, who are concerned their children might be exposed to things and ideas they would prefer them to avoid.

  24. Warming-up II. School Mottos (校训) Identify school mottos of some famous universities home and abroad. Then introduce your school motto.

  25. Warming-up Peking University Tsinghua University

  26. Warming-up Truth The Lord is My Light Harvard University University of Oxford

  27. Warming-up Light and Truth Yale University School Motto of Your University?

  28. Comprehension of the text (1) 1. What principle does the Hyde School operate on? It operates on the principle that if you teach students the merit of such values as truth, courage, integrity, leadership, curiosity and concern, then academic achievement naturally follows. 2. What is the Hyde School famous for? It is famous for its work with troubled youngsters.

  29. Comprehension of the text (2) 3. Why was the first Hyde public program suspended within months? Because teachers protested the program’s demands and the strain associated with more intense work. 4. When the Hyde Foundation opened a program within a public high school in the suburbs of New Haven, Connecticut, what did the community fear? The community feared the school would attract inner-city minority and troubled students.

  30. Comprehension of the text (3) 5. How is the Hyde curriculum different from conventional schools that provide preparation for college? In the Hyde School, all students are required to take performing arts and sports, and provide a community service. For each course, students get a grade for academic achievement and for “best effort”. 6. What must parents do for their children to gain admission? Parents must agree to accept and demonstrate the school’s philosophies and outlook.

  31. Faculty evaluations are conducted by the students. Comprehension of the text (4) 7.What is the biggest obstacle for many parents? The biggest obstacle for many parents is to realize their own weaknesses. 8.How are faculty evaluations done in the Hyde School?

  32. Central topic: The text is about the Hyde School’s successful search for a new approach in education, which is centered upon teaching students the merit of such values as truth, integrity, leadership, curiosity and concern. Text Analysis- (1)

  33. Part I (Paras. 1-2) Part II Part III Part IV Text Analysis- (2) Main idea ? To feed the reader’s curiosity about “Where Principles Come First”, the author starts his article with an introduction to the principles on which the Hyde School operates. Devices for developing it ? Quotation (引言法)

  34. Part I Part II (Paras. 3-11) Part III Part IV Text Analysis- (3) Main idea ? Since the Hyde principles are somewhat different from those of other schools, they are rejected by some schools, as described in Para. 3, and appreciated by others, as described in Paras. 4 – 11. Devices for developing it ? Exemplification(举例法)

  35. Part I Part II Part III (Paras. 12 - 16) Part IV Text Analysis- (4) Main idea? This part deals with detailed principles and approaches in the Hyde School program: valuing each student’s character-based unique potential, and requiring both students’ responsibility for each other and parents’ commitment to the program. Devices for developing it ? Deduction (演绎法)

  36. Part I Part II Part III Part IV (Paras.17-20) Text Analysis- (5) Main idea? This part is about how beneficial or good the program is to both the teachers and the students. Devices for developing it ? Exemplification (举例法) Comparison & Contrast (对比法)

  37. Key Words

  38. Translation publicity: n. public notice or attention公众的注意,名声 seek/avoid publicity 追求/避免公众注意 When the news media and the public show a lot of interest in something, you can say that it is receiving publicity. 当新闻媒体和公众对某事物表现出很大兴趣时,你就可以说这事引起了公众关注。

  39. Translation publicity: • providing information in order to attract public • attention; advertising 广告,宣传 The corporation has launched a massive publicity campaign to promote its products. 公司对产品进行了大规模的广告宣传。

  40. Association 1. public adj. 公众的 in public The campaign was designed to increase public awareness of the problem. 这个运动的目的在于提高公众对这一问题的认识。 2. publicize v.宣传 an advertising campaign to publicize the new train service 为新投入运营的铁路路线而开展的宣传活动

  41. Translation v. develop and improve 培养,陶冶 v. prepare /use (land, etc) for growing crops耕种,耕作 cultivate: Cultivating a positive attitude towards yourself can reap tremendous benefits. 对自己有一种正确的心态能收益颇多。 He has written eight books and has cultivated the image of a popular writer. 他写了8本小说,由此树立了通俗小说家的形象。 She has cultivated a small garden of her own. The land was too rocky to cultivate.

  42. comprehensive:/kɔmpri'hensiv/ a.that includes (nearly) everything综合的,全面的 eg: a comprehensive description / report A guide book giving comprehensive information on the area. comprehensible: that can be understood fully能充分理解的 comprehend---comprehension eg: a comprehensive test综合测试 a comprehension test理解力测试

  43. Translation suspend: v. stop or cause to be not active暂停,中止 The union suspended strike action this week. The young man has given a suspended sentence. Some rail services were suspended during the strike.

  44. Translation suspend: v. hang sth. up 悬挂 A lamp was suspended from the ceiling. 天花板上吊着一盏灯。 suspension bridge吊桥 ---suspect :suspect sb (of sth / doing sth): feel that sb. is guilty of sth. without certain proof. eg: suspect sb’s motives Who do the police suspect (of the crime) ? The police are interrogating two suspects. His statements are suspect.

  45. Association suspend sb. from sth.: prevent sb. officially from holding his usual position, carrying out his duties, etc. for a time 勒令某人暂时停职、停止履行职责等 She was suspended from school for stealing. 她因偷窃行为遭勒令停学处分。

  46. Translation n. severe demand on one’s mental or physical strength, abilities, etc. (对精力、体力、能 力的)苛求,压力 strain: She is under a lot of strain at work. 她承受着很大的工作压力。 Mum’s illness has put a strain on the whole family. 妈妈的病使全家人担忧。

  47. Translation • v. put a lot of pressure on sht.使紧张 • v. hurt or weaken a part of the body by stretching too much or trying too hard 扭伤,损伤 • V.make the greatest possible effort 竭尽全力 strain: Money problem has strained their relationship. 钱的问题使他们关系紧张。 She strained her ankle. 她扭了脚。 strain to hear a conversation strain to understand what she meant

  48. Translation v. based on some agreement about how people should act or behave in certain situations 常规的,惯例的,传统的 conventional I quite like him but he’s so conventional. 我很喜欢他,只是他非常守旧。 conventional attitude 传统的态度

  49. Association Translation n. entering or being allowed to enter录取,准许加入,成为…一员 A statement in which one admits that sth. is true or that one has done sth. wrong. 承认 6) admission: 1. All those who were not wearing a tie were refused admission to the club. 2. admission to a famous university 3. He’s a bad driver, on his own admission. admit: v. 承认 (admit doing sth.) Admittance:permission to enter a building No admittance Even Journalists were unable to gain admittance to the courtroom.

  50. outlook n 1. your general attitude to life and the world 观点看法 A person who has a positive outlook on life is more likely to overcome difficulties and achieve success. 持有积极的人生态度的人更容易克服困难,取得成功。 2. What is expected to happen in the future 前景 The long-term outlook for economic growth in our country is good/positive/optimistic. 我国经济发展的长期展望前景很好/令人乐观。