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Topic SENTENCE

Topic SENTENCE

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Topic SENTENCE

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  1. Paragraph Organization P. 2-3 Remember: A paragraph is usually about a single topic or idea. Topic SENTENCE SUPPORT Sentence SUPPORT Sentence SUPPORT Sentence CONCLUSION

  2. Outlining a Paragraph The Writing Process – P. 5 With a partner, analyze “The Traditional Music of the United States” on p. 5. Select the best topic sentence and conclusion. Outline it in the margin or on a separate piece of paper. I. A. 1. 2. B. 1. C. 1. II. • Jazz, country, and folk…Three types • Jazz – African/European • Slavery • Incorporation • Country - immigration • Irish and English immigrants • Folk – guitars and voices • 1950s and 1960s protests • Three types (topic) (controlling idea) (major support) (minor support) (minor support) (major support) (minor support) (major support) (minor support) (conclusion) When planning, outline your main ideas and use key words. You can write sentences later. them later.

  3. Paragraph vs. Essay Essays Paragraphs Topic SENTENCE Intro paragraph SUPPORT SentenceSUPPORT Sentence SUPPORT Sentence SUPPORT Paragraph SUPPORT Paragraph SUPPORT Paragraph CONCLUSION CONCLUSION

  4. Essay Organization P. 7-8 Introductory Paragraph Hook, intro infoTS Jazz, country, folk… Body Paragraph 1TS Jazz – African/EuropeanSS slavery, incorporation More Details Body Paragraph 2 TS Country – Immigration SS Irish/English immigrantsMore Details Body Paragraph 3 TS Folk – Guitars and Voices SS 1950s/60sMore Details Conclusion Paragraph Writing Tip: 1 Paragraph = 1 Idea TS Jazz, country, and folk… MS Jazz – African/European ms Slavery ms Incorporation MS Country – immigration ms Irish and English immigrants MS Folk – guitars and voices m 1950s and 1960s protests CS Three types Homework: Look at your paragraph outline. Change it to represent an essay.

  5. Beginning an Essay

  6. Beginning an Essay Choose a topic from the following: Brainstorm your ideas 5 minutes Outline your essay 5 minutes Raise your hand and Anthony will check your work. • How the internet is changing society. • How the internet is changing education. • The benefits of smartphones. • The drawbacks of smartphones. • Introduction Paragraph • Three points • Support Paragraph I • Main Support • Minor Supports • Support Paragraph 2 • Main Support • Minor Supports • Support Paragraph 3 • Main Support • Minor Supports • Concluding Paragraph

  7. Brainstorming / Mind Mapping P. 18 TOPIC MAIN IDEAS DETAILS

  8. Brainstorming / Mind Mapping P. 18 Think about: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Benefits and Drawbacks Topic Main Idea Details Details

  9. Beginning an Essay • Choose a topic from the following: • Brainstorm your ideas 5 minutes • Outline your essay 5 minutes • Raise your hand and Anthony will check your work. • Homework: • Type your outline in the “Personal Essay” document on Google Drive • How the internet is changing society. • How the internet is changing education. • The benefits of smartphones. • The drawbacks of smartphones. • Introduction Paragraph • Three points • Support Paragraph I • Main Support • Minor Supports • Support Paragraph 2 • Main Support • Minor Supports • Support Paragraph 3 • Main Support • Minor Supports • Concluding Paragraph

  10. Introduction Paragraphs

  11. Intro Paragraphs P. 9 • The goal of the intro paragraph is to capture your reader’s interest and state your topic. • Hooks • -A thought provoking question • -A surprising fact • -An interesting statistic • -A quote • -A problem • -A story • -A definition • -Historical comparison • -The opposite side’s opinion • Look at pages 28-29 for hookexamples! A duck’s quack doesn’t echo. According to researchers, 99% of all statistics are lies. In many countries without the death penalty, serial killers and rapists often enjoy long lives in prison while their victims suffer forever. Have you ever wondered what it would be like to be a machine? Hillary Clinton once said that “There cannot be true democracy unless women's voices are heard.” Every Halloween in ancient Rome, the most evil criminals were executed in public.

  12. Intro Paragraphs P. 9 • The goal of the intro paragraph is to capture your reader’s interest and state your main idea. • Hooks • -A thought provoking question • -A surprising fact • -An interesting statistic • -A quote • -A problem • -A story • -A definition • -Historical comparison • -The opposite side’s opinion • Look at pages 28-29 for hookexamples! Intro Guidelines -Starts general with a hook start with a broad statement -Connecting information begin narrowing down topic usually gives background information -Ends specific with thesis statement make it specific with a thesis statement

  13. Thesis Statements P. 9 Like a topic sentence in a paragraph, an intro paragraph must have a thesis statement. The thesis states your main idea and focus. It is the answer to the (research) question you will be asking/answering. Question: What role does the internet play in your life? Thesis: The internet has had a significant impact on my life in terms of learning, creativity, and communication. Question: Why do people become homeless? Thesis:The lack of affordable housing, poor public assistance, and the breakdown of the family are three causes of homelessness. THESIS features States your topic and focus. Be an overview of your points. Not too specific. controlling idea predictors Writing Tip: 3 Predictors is Ideal

  14. Analyzing Thesis Statements P. 9 State your topic and focus. Be an overview of your points. Not too specific. What is the topic, controlling idea, and predictors? • The pyramids of Egypt, the Great Wall of China, and the city of Machu Picchu are all reflections of the societies that built them. • Fashion is an important part of cultural expression. • The study of literature can be divided into four sections: poetry, prose, essay, and drama.

  15. Language Focus: Connections

  16. Choppy Sentences We write many sentences that share similar ideas. These sentences can be combined. We can combine them to make a compound sentence. Sometimes they aren’t combined. These are choppy sentences. And they are not good sentences.

  17. Choppy Sentences Ideas in sentences can be connected by combining them to make compound sentences. Several sentences in a row without connections are called choppy sentences. A sentence that isn’t choppy “flows”. The ideas are well connected and that makes the sentences good. The didgeridoo is an Australian aboriginal instrument. It is considered the oldest of the wind instruments. Players of the didgeridoo seem to snore less. Doctors have found scientific proof that this is true. Didgeridoo players breathe in a special way. They open up their air passage. They snore less. The didgeridoo is an Australian aboriginal instrument. It is considered the oldest of the wind instruments. Players of the didgeridoo seem to snore less. Doctors have found scientific proof that this is true. Didgeridoo players breathe in a special way. They open up their air passage. They snore less.  Idea 1  Idea 2  Idea 3

  18. Choppy Sentences Ideas in sentences can be connected by combining them to make compound sentences. Several sentences in a row without connections are called choppy sentences. A sentence that isn’t choppy “flows”. The ideas are well connected and that makes the sentences good. And: conjunction connecting two ideas The didgeridoo is an Australian aboriginal instrument, and it is considered the oldest of the wind instruments. Moreover, players of the didgeridoo seem to snore less. Indeed, Doctors have found scientific proof that this is true. Didgeridoo players breathe in a special way. They open up their air passage, sothey snore less. The didgeridoo is an Australian aboriginal instrument. It is considered the oldest of the wind instruments. Players of the didgeridoo seem to snore less. Doctors have found scientific proof that this is true. Didgeridoo players breathe in a special way. They open up their air passage. They snore less. The didgeridoo is an Australian aboriginal instrument. It is considered the oldest of the wind instruments. Players of the didgeridoo seem to snore less. Doctors have found scientific proof that this is true. Didgeridoo players breathe in a special way. They open up their air passage. They snore less. Moreover: adverb for additional information Indeed: emphasizing previous information So: conjunction to show effect

  19. Choppy Sentences Ideas in sentences can be connected by combining them to make compound sentences. Several sentences in a row without connections are called choppy sentences. A sentence that isn’t choppy “flows”. The ideas are well connected and that makes the sentences good. And , : additional information The didgeridoo is an Australian aboriginal instrument, and it is considered the oldest of the wind instruments. Moreover, players of the didgeridoo seem to snore less. Indeed, Doctors have found scientific proof that this is true. Didgeridoo players breathe in a special way. They open up their air passage, so they snore less. The didgeridoo is an Australian aboriginal instrument. It is considered the oldest of the wind instruments. Players of the didgeridoo seem to snore less. Doctors have found scientific proof that this is true. Didgeridoo players breathe in a special way. They open up their air passage. They snore less. The didgeridoo is an Australian aboriginal instrument. It is considered the oldest of the wind instruments. Players of the didgeridoo seem to snore less. Doctors have found scientific proof that this is true. Didgeridoo players breathe in a special way. They open up their air passage. They snore less. The didgeridoo is an Australian aboriginal instrument, considered the oldest of the wind instruments. Interestingly, doctors have found thatplayers of the didgeridoo seem to snore less. This isbecause didgeridoo players breathe in a special way. Since they open up their air passage, they snore less. Interestingly : adverb for additional information Doctors…: shortening the sentence This is: referring to previous ideas

  20. Intro Paragraph Analysis

  21. Introduction One • Technique: Story hook. • Issue Presentation: After the hook transition. • Hook transition explains / clarifies the hook: • “She is a typical young person in the world today. • Nowadays, our life itself is globalized.” • Focus:/Supporting Points: globalization is good because of economics, health, and culture.

  22. Introduction One SCORE: 2.5 • What does this connecting information need? • The author needs a better transition. • “She is a typical young person in the world today. Nowadays, our life itself is globalized.” • There is no connection between these sentences.. They are choppy. • “She is a typical person in today’s globalized world. Nowadays, allour lives are globalized.” • What’s wrong with thesis? • The thesis contains unrelated information. • “Although some people worry that it aggravates the problem of obesity all over the world, globalization is good because we can benefit from it in three ways: economics, health, and culture.” • This is not about obesity or food, so the author must remove the unrelated information.

  23. Introduction One REVISED • “She is a typical person in today’s globalized world. Nowadays, all our lives are globalized. Some people worry that this globalization leads to obesity, loss of culture, or economic problems. However, this is not necessarily true. In fact, we can actually benefit from globalization (in three ways: economics, health, and culture).” Repetition Previous idea Contrast connector Writing Tip: Repetition of key words helps create connections. Emphasis connector

  24. Introduction two • Technique: Question hook, presenting an argument • Issue Presentation: After the transition • “Although standardized testing is a controversy around the world…” • Focus:/Supporting Points: testing improves the quality of education by motivating students and providing effective measurements.

  25. Introduction two SCORE: 3.5 What’s wrong with this hook? The question hook is cliché (스테레오판) “Have you ever taken standardized tests? What’s missing between the connecting idea and the thesis statement? The thesis needs a stronger transition word. “…local governments will continue to use standardized tests… Standardized tests improve quality of education in two ways…”

  26. Introduction two REVISED “…local governments will continue to use standardized tests… This is because standardized tests improve quality of education in two ways…” Connects to previous idea

  27. Introduction THREE Technique: Presenting examples, then presenting a problem, then a quote Issue Presentation: In the quote (topic) then the thesis statement (focus) Focus:/Supporting Points: how globalization has influenced marriage recently.

  28. Introduction THREE SCORE: 1.5 • What’s wrong with the introduction paragraph? • The hook is unrelated to the focus of the paper. • “It is wonderful for people all over the world to communicate with each other through the internet, or to enjoy foods from the opposite side of the globe. … While many people debate the issue, globalization has influenced women’s expectations of marriage recently.” • Neither women nor marriage were mentioned in the connecting information.

  29. Introduction THREE REVISION In the article, “Globalization: Good or Bad?” Keith Porter (2004). … Many people debate the issue of globalization. It is responsible for both cross-cultural communication and cross-cultural tension. One specific area globalization has affected is marriage. Due to globalization, exposure to differing cultural notions of love, the presence of interethnic couples, and an improvement in women’s rights have caused serious changes to women’s expectations of marriage. Hook / introducing the topic Introducing the issue Introducing the focus Thesis statement

  30. Connecting Information Between your hook and thesis statement you need some connecting information. Your hook should be general. Your thesis statement should be specific. The connecting information helps narrow down your writing. Hook • Connecting ideas usually • give background info • Introduce the problem being analyzed • Introduce your subject and / or controlling idea • Use connectors (see the appendix) Connecting Information Introduction Paragraph Thesis Statement

  31. Body Paragraphs

  32. Body Paragraphs P. 4/ 11 Body paragraphs are similar to regular paragraphs: they are about a single idea and they provide support (details, examples, facts, etc.) The body paragraph is about one point of the thesis. It has major supports – something that helps the paragraph’s main idea and the thesis. There are also minor supports – something that helps the major support. These are usually details, facts, evidence, etc. “body” THESIS (~3 ideas) SUPPORT PARAGRAPH (1 idea)  MAJOR SUPPORTS  MINOR SUPPORTS

  33. Bridges P. 12 • A single paragraph has a topic sentence and conclusion. But a body paragraph in an essay often replaces these with a bridge. • A first sentence bridge connects to the previous paragraph. • A final sentence bridge connects to the next paragraph. • Bridges are made by using repetition of keywords, repetition of ideas, or the use of connectors. A body paragraph can have 0, 1, or 2 bridges. Appendix 2 - P. 166

  34. Bridges P. 12 Bridges are used to make writing flow. Words like “First”, “Second”, “Next” make writing less smooth. Good writing means sentences and paragraphs are well connected. Final sentence bridge connects to next paragraph. To write a bridge, use an idea, keyword, and/or a connector to connect paragraphs. Look at the bridges on page 12. How are the bridges made? Work with a partner to label the idea, keyword orconnector. First sentence bridge connects to previous paragraph.

  35. Bridge Examples P. 13 In 1980 ... Vincent van Gogh has remained a popular artist because of the vibrancy of his color in his paintings, the boldness of his brushstrokes, and the tragedy of his life story. Van Gogh is well known for using vivid colors. He liked to use bright colors that overemphasized the colors in the real world ... Van Gogh was emphasizing the amazing clarity of a starry night.Bright colors are just one of the reasons Van Gogh has left an enduring mark on the art world. Another reason for van Gogh’s enduring popularity is the boldness of his brushstrokes. … By looking at his paintings, you realize the strength he had as a painter. Unfortunately, he never realized thisstrength. During his life, Van Gogh painted thousands of paintings, but he wasn’t successful at making a living at it. … 1 2 3 4

  36. Conclusions P. 14 A conclusion Has a transition word or sentence, -don’t use in conclusion, in sum, in the end,, in the end Makes a final analysis / summary of points -show how they all are related by synthesizing (종합하다) ideas Leaves a final comment -prediction, opinion, suggestion, solution Leaves a lasting impression / makes the reader think -should affect the reader in some way, shorter is better Doesn’t add any new ideas In conclusion, Van Gogh is beloved as a painter after so many years because the colors and brushstrokes that characterize his paintings urge the viewer to look more closely and see the brilliance of his work. Unhappily, he is also remembered because of the sadness in his life. The greatest sadness, of course, is that he never knew what an enduring body of work he left behind.

  37. Language Focus Present Participle Adjectives vs. Past Participle Adjectives

  38. Ing is bored because Ed is boring. Ing received the action Doing the action to bore bored(feeling) boring(action)

  39. Ing is bored because Ed is boring. Ing and Ed are taking an ___1____ class, but Ed is not doing well because he is an __2___ student. Ed always interrupts the class. Ing received the action Doing the action 1. interest 2. annoy