JAPAN RULES THE PACIFIC Japanese victories: • Pearl Harbor, • Wake Island, • Clark Air Force Base, • Guam, • The Philippines, • Hong Kong, • Singapore, • Dutch East Indies, • Malaysian Peninsula
Bataan Death March • 76000 Americans and Filipinos were taken prisoner and forced on the Bataan Death March. • Over 10,000 died on the march, and another 15,000 died in captivity.
NEW FORMS OF FIGHTING • *Jungle Terrain • *Amphibious Landings • *Naval Power/Air Power • *Up against the philosophy of BUSHIDO (fight to the death) and SEPUKKU (death before surrender)
BATTLE OF CORAL SEA • *IMPORTANCE: Save New Guinea to save Australia. • Carrier-based planes do most of the fighting. • RESULT: We lose the Lexington but win the battle.
BATTLE OF MIDWAY-JUNE 3-6, 1942 • THE TURNING POINT OF THE PACIFIC • We break Japanese code • the attack is June 3rd. • Nimitz sends carriers to Midway • Japan loses three aircraft carriers and, suffers its FIRST LOSS.
GUADALCANAL -AUGUST 7,1942 • “ISLAND OF DEATH” • *Japanese airbase is being built, and needs to be taken out.
GUADALCANAL • *After 6 months of fighting the Japanese, we learn what the war in the Pacific will be like… Banzai attacks will leave 36,000 Japanese dead on Guadalcanal alone.
VICTORIES ARE PILING UP: • *Gilbert Islands • *Marshall Islands • *Caroline Islands • US soldiers were shocked at the practice of seppuku
SAIPAN - JUNE 15, 1944 • 153,000 Marines vs. 30,000 Japanese • We need Saipan to bomb Japan (1200 miles away).
SAIPAN • The Japanese chose death over surrender. Soldiers and Civilians jump over the cliffs to their death.
BOMBING JAPAN - 1944 • We are now in position to bomb Japan. • * Most bombs were fire bombs. • * Japan will receive 160,830 TONS of bombs.
BATTLE OF LEYTE GULF October 1944 • MACARTHUR RETURNS!!! • Largest naval battle in history. • last major battle that the Japan can launch. • Japan will use whatever it has left to fight to the death.
Hiroo Onoda • He had been stationed on Lubang Island in the Philippines when it was overrun by U.S. forces in February 1945. Most of the Japanese troops were slain or captured, but Onoda and several other men holed up in the jungle. The others were eventually killed, but Onoda held out for 29 years, dismissing every attempt to coax him out as a ruse. Finally the Japanese government located his commanding officer, who went to Lubang in 1974 to order Onoda to give up. The lieutenant stepped out of the jungle to accept the order of surrender in his dress uniform and sword, with his rifle still in operating condition.
IWO JIMA & OKINAWA…The last two… • *600 Miles from Japan, great bombing bases.
Battle of Iwo Jima February 19th – March 26th 1944
Battle of OkinawaApril 1st – June 22nd 1944 • 110,000 Japanese killed • 12,500 Americans killed
Battle of Okinawa 100,000 civilians died in the fighting.
KAMIKAZES • *Last attempt to turn the war. Attacks would last the rest of the war. • *U.S. WILL LOSE 34 SHIPS, 368 DAMAGED, 763 PLANES
MANHATTAN PROJECT • *After taking office, Truman learns of a secret project…
POTSDAM CONFERENCE-JULY 1945 • *Truman, Stalin, Atlee, Churchill • *New weapon was discussed (Stalin made it a point to act unimpressed. His spies had already told him about the bomb. He knew about it long before Truman did. • *The Allies would only accept UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER from Japan.
DID TRUMAN HAVE OPTIONS? • *Use as a bargaining tool. • *Demonstrate the bomb, then ask for surrender • *invasion of Japan
Col. Paul Tibbits • TRUMAN WARNS JAPAN OF DESTRUCTION AND ASKS FOR SURRENDER, NO REPLY FROM JAPAN.
AUGUST 14, 1945 • VJ Day • Formal Surrender September 2, 1945-aboard the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay, formal surrender is signed.
Aftermath… • 55 million soldier and civilians died • 20 million from the Soviet Union alone • 290,000 American dead • 670,000 Americans wounded