Standards • California Academic Standards: 11.7.2, 6, & 7 • 11.7 Students analyze America's participation in World War II. • .2 Explain U.S. and Allied wartime strategy, including the major battles of Midway, Normandy, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and the Battle of the Bulge. • .6 Describe major developments in aviation, weaponry, communication, and medicine and the war's impact on the location of American industry and use of resources. • .7 Discuss the decision to drop atomic bombs and the consequences of the decision (Hiroshima and Nagasaki).
Objectives • Following lecture and reading of this section, students will be able to: • Identify key turning points in the war in the Pacific. • Explain the development of and the debates concerning the use of the atomic bomb. • Describe the challenges faced by the Allies in building a just and lasting postwar peace.
Japanese Advances • In first 6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan conquered an empire (Pacific) • Gen. Douglas MacArthur led the Allied forces in Philippines • March 1942 U.S. & Filipino troops were trapped on Bataan Peninsula • FDR ordered MacArthur to leave, thousands of troops remain • MacArthur vows to return!
Striking Back @ Japan • Doolittle’s Raid • April 1942, Lt. Col. James Doolittle led air raid on Tokyo • Battle of the Coral Sea • May 1942, U.S. & Australian soldiers stop Japanese drive to Australia • For first time since Pearl Harbor, a Japanese invasion turned back • The Battle of Midway • Admiral Chester Nimitz commanded U.S. naval forces in Pacific • Allies broke the secret Japanese code, win the Battle of Midway, and stop Japan again • Allies advance island by island to Japan • Island Hopping- taking less defended islands
Offense and Defense • The Allied Offensive • Allied offensive begins August 1942 in Guadalcanal • October 1944, Allies converge on Leyte Island in Philippines • MacArthur returns to the Philippines • The Japanese Defense • Japan used kamikaze attack • Pilots crash bomb-laden planes into ships • Battle of Leyte Gulf is a disaster for Japan • Imperial Navy severely damaged; played minor role after
Converging on Japan • Iwo Jima • Iwo Jima critical as base from which planes can reach Japan • 6,000 marines die taking island; of 20,700 Japanese, 200 survive • The Battle for Okinawa • April 1945 U.S. Marines invade Okinawa • April–June: 7,600 U.S. troops, 110,000 Japanese die • As fighting neared the Japanese homeland death tolls on both sides increased…
Invading Japan • Allies feared an invasion of Japan may cause up to 1.5 million Allied casualties • The Manhattan Project (Atom Bomb) • J. Robert Oppenheimer was research director of Manhattan Project • July 1945, atomic bomb tested in New Mexico desert • Much more powerful than expected • President Truman ordered military to drop 2 atomic bombs on Japan • Hiroshima and Nagasaki • August 6, Hiroshima, major military center, destroyed by bomb (Little Boy) • 3 days later, bomb dropped on city of Nagasaki (Fat Man) • September 2, 1945 Japan surrendered
Post War Issues • The Yalta Conference • February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta • discussed post-war world • FDR, Churchill make a concession: • Temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts (zones) • Stalin promised free elections in Eastern Europe; also agreed to fight Japan • FDR got support for conference to establish United Nations • Human Costs of the War • WW II most destructive war in human history • Millions of lives lost
Trials and Occupation • The Nuremberg War Trials • Nuremberg trials—24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced • charged with crimes: against humanity, against the peace, war crimes • Established the principle that people are responsible for their own actions, even in war • The Occupation of Japan • MacArthur commanded U.S. occupation forces in Japan • Over 1,100 Japanese tried, sentenced • MacArthur reshaped Japan’s economy & government • Capitalism • MacArthur Constitution, still in place today in Japan • Suffrage for women
In the Philippines, the 200,000 Japanese troops eventually overran the 80,000 American and Filipino troops under the command of General Douglas MacArthur over the course of four months on the Bataan Peninsula and another month of the island of Corregidor in Manila Bay.
MacArthur was forced to abandon the Philippines but vowed, “I shall return.” • The Americans responded with the Doolittle raid, in which Americans bombed Tokyo. • This lifted American spirits and dampened Japan’s spirits, having them doubt their invincibility.
The Battle of Midway • The Allies endured hunger, disease, and bombardments, killing 14,000 and wounding 48,000. • Admiral Chester Nimitz, commander of American forces in the Pacific, learned of Japanese intentions to take the island of Midway, then Hawaii.
Nimitz, outnumbered 4 to 1in ships and planes, prepared a surprise attack and staved off the Japanese invasion. • Island Hopping • The Pacific theater was huge because of all the distance between islands. • MacArthur came up with an island hopping strategy to defeat Japan.
In island hopping, the U.S. would take less fortified islands back from the Japanese. • Then once secured between Japan and other islands would cut supply lines to local islands. • Allied Victories • In August 1942, the Japanese lost their first land battle of the war on Guadalcanal
In October 1944, through island hopping, MacArthur returned to the Philippines as promised. • During the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the Japanese unleashed Kamikazes, a new battle tactic in which Japanese pilots crashed planes with bombs on them into American ships. • After retaking the Philippines, the Allies turned attention to Iwo Jima.
Taking Iwo Jima was critical to our offensive, because from Iwo Jima American bomber planes could get to Japan. • Of the 20,700 Japanese, only 200 survived the American attack on Iwo Jima. • The next and last island before reaching Japan was Okinawa, Japan’s last defensive outpost.
Japanese loses defending Okinawa were 110,000. While only 7,600 Americans died. • Between Iwo Jima and Okinawa FDR died, placing Harry Truman in office as President. • There is no doubt that as the fighting got closer and closer to Japan, Japanese soldiers became fiercer and more desperate.
The Atomic Bomb Decision • On July 16, 1945, the a-bomb was detonated in the New Mexico desert; the flash could be seen 180 miles away. • The bomb was more powerful than the scientists thought it would be.
Even though it worked, and worked well, scientists, military leaders, civilian policymakers had major doubts about using it, thinking it would be immoral without warning. • Some claimed a demonstration of the bomb for the Japanese to show them the devastation would get them to surrender.
Eventually the Interim Committee decided dropping the bomb was necessary. • People came around to the same conclusion, especially after figures of U.S. casualties and projected casualties came in. • Bombed used for other reasons than to get Japanese to surrender. • Needed to justify cost spent on developing weapon
Wanted to give U.S. advantage over Soviets when deciding how to shape the postwar world. • The bomb was initially estimated to have saved over 1 million American lives. • The Bombs Are Dropped • The Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were bombed because they were military targets.
Hiroshima was bombed with the Enola Gay Bomber, bomb codenamed Little Boy on August 6, 1945 • Nagasaki was bombed with Fat Man, on August 9, 1945 when Japanese leaders did not surrender. • An estimated 200,000 Japanese died from the blasts or injuries from the blast by the end of the year. • On September 2, 1945, Emperor Hirohito, of Japan, surrendered and the war was over.
Rebuilding the World • February 1945, before war was over, FDR, Churchill and Stalin met in Yalta, USSR. • At the Yalta Conference they agreed to move ahead with creating the UN. • In April, 50 nations met in SF to establish the UN.
The UN was a town meeting for the world to help avoid conflicts before they start. • The real power was held by an 11 member security council (6 permanent members, 5 rotating members) • In July 1945, Truman, Churchill and Stalin met in Potsdam to discuss disarmament of Germany.
They decided to divide Germany into four sectors and the capital city of Berlin into four sectors. • Nuremburg Trials • We put 22 Nazis on trial for their crimes 12 were sentenced to death. • 1st time people were held accountable for crimes during war time.
200 more found guilty of war crimes in later dates. • The Occupation of Japan • MacArthur and U.S. occupied Japan. • 1,100 people were arrested and put on trial. • 7 were put to death, including Tojo
During 6 year occupation, MacArthur reformed Japan’s economy by introducing free-market practices and reformed Japan’s government by calling for a new constitution that provided woman suffrage, and guaranteed basic freedoms. • To this day the Japanese constitution in known as the MacArthur Constitution.