GANGS Meredith Brunkow Joanna Esker Stephanie Popovich
What is a Gang? • A gang is an organization of two or more individuals who form an alliance for a common purpose. The gang identifies with and claims territory in the community and engages individually or collectively in violence and other criminal activity.
Hidden America: Children caught in Chicago Gang War • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qxjkBI_EwUQ
History of Gangs • The exact origin and date of when street gangs are unknown. • Immigration starts migration of gangs. • The history of street gangs in the United States estimated to begin on the East Coast around 1783.
History • New York: Street gangs on the East Coast developed in three phases . • Chicago: Chicago emerged between the Civil War and the end of the 19th century. • Gangs flourished in Chicago in the early part of the 1900s.
History • Gangs grow in the West. • The existence of the Mexican population in the United States dates back to the 16th century. • Often were treated as second-class citizens and were told to go back to their home, Mexico.
Why do teens join gangs? • Safety • Friendship • Tradition • Recognition • Peer pressure
10 Most Dangerous Gangs in the World • Mara Salvatrucha (United States) • Latin Kings (United States) • Aryan Brotherhood (United States) • Los Zetas (Mexico) • 18th Street Gang (United States) • Bloods (United States) • Yakuza (Japan) • WahChing (United States) • Crips (United States) • Cosa Nostra (United States)
Latin Kings • Best organized Latin gang in the world • Formed in Chicago in the 1940s • 18,000 members in Chicago alone • Mexican-dominated gang • Illegal money making, contract killing • Colors = Black & Gold • Symbol = Crown
Latin King Statistics • Average age of first firing a pistol – 11.0 • Average age of seeing someone killed by gang violence – 11.5 • Average age of joining the gang – 12.3 • Average age expected to quit the gang – 25.1 • Average age of expected death – 57.8
Bloods • Founded in 1972 in Los Angeles • African-American males • Between 15,000 and 20,000 members • Known for red clothing and bandanas • Street-level distribution of crack cocaine and marijuana • Auto theft, drive-by-shooting, extortion, homicide, identification fraud, and robbery • Symbol = 5-pointed star
Crips • Founded in Los Angeles in 1969 • One of the biggest crime groups in the world • Bloods’ biggest rival • African-American gang • 30,000-35,000 members • Blue clothes & blue bandanas • Symbol: Six-point star and six-point crown • Murders, robberies, drug dealings
Bloods vs. Crips • Two of the most violent gangs in U.S. history • Crips formed in response to the Bloods • South Central, Los Angeles • Territory war • “Vicious and never-ending” • Battles were common on the streets, county jails, & prisons
Criminology Theories • Social Disorganization Theory • Differential Association Theory • Labeling Theory
Race and Ethnicity • Risk Factors—cut across racial and ethnic lines, including the negative consequences. • Media representation • Difficulties of assimilating • Juvenile Delinquent vs. Youth at Risk
46 percent Hispanic/Latino, 35 percent African-American gang members, 11 percent white gang members, and 7 percent other race/ethnicity gang members.
Community Involvement • Cease Fire/Cure Violence —Violence Interrupters • Chicago Area Project [CAP] • Al Reyes
Sources • http://www.ngcrc.com/ngcrc/page15.htm • http://www.themost10.com/10-most-dangerous-gangs-in-the-world/ • http://cryptome.org/gangs/bloods.pdf • http://www.gapgangs.com/resources/Gangs+Crips+$26+Bloods.pdf • Porter P, Matter R. Review of 'Gangs of America: The rise of corporate power and the disabling of democracy'. The Academy Of Management Review [serial online]. October 2004;29(4):689-691. Available from: PsycINFO, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 11, 2013
Sources • Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/preventgangmembership/gangs-book_ch10-508.pdf • Gangs 101: Understanding the Culture of Youth Violence. http://gangs.umd.edu/Downloads/Prevention/Gangs%20101%20-%20Understanding%20the%20Culture%20of%20Youth%20Violence.pdf • Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Gang Prevention. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/231116.pdf