NOUN I. Proper : China, Monday, Mary. Common: a college, a river, a mountain. Collective: team, family, group. II. Concrete: a cake, a banana, a chair. Abstract: love, idea, revenge. III. Specific: a dog, a cow, an ant. Non-specific: an animal, a flower, an insect. IV. Countable: a table, a bed, a sofa. Uncountable: milk, water, rice, butter.
Properties of a Noun I. Number singular plural a dog dogs a box boxes a dress dresses a baby babies a potato potatoes a bench benches a dish dishes a leaf leaves
Irregular singular plural a man men a woman women a child children a mouse mice a foot feet a tooth teeth a goose geese an ox oxen
Borrowed words singular plural formula formulae locus loci aquarium aquaria phenomenon phenomena axis axes
Singular form: a) collective: congress, organization, family, army, public. b) noun+s: billiards, economics, phisics. Plural form: a) collective and pair nouns: goods, pants, clothes, stairs. b) Nouns without –s-: police, people, youth. Both singular and plural:This series is new. These series are new.
II. Gender 1) masculine: father, a boy, an uncle. 2) feminine: mother, a queen, a sister. 3) common: birds, children, students. 4) neuter: a city, a book, a desk. III. Person 1st person : I, John, was there. 2nd person: Fred, come in the evening. 3rd person: I saw Mark at the station.
IV. Case 1) nominative: The moon is in the sky. 2) objective: I’ve told Mary about this book. 3) possessive: It’s Ann’s book.
Noun’s structures Three noun structures Structure the "possessive case": a'sb the girl's dress prepositional: b of aa group of girls noun compounds: aba school girl
Noun structures compared a'sbb of a 1) a = sth animate a = sth inanimate my boy's toy; Tom's aunt; the hall of the flat Jim and Ann's flat; the windows of the restaurant 2) a = sth inanimate (esp. related to human activities) the country's wealth; the wealth of the country; the plan's importancetheinportance of the plan
ab (a classifying meaning)a's b, b of a (a specifying meaning) 1)a = a subclass a = particular individual / thing a paper bag, John's bag, a leather baga bag of apples 2)things are considered things are considered as a whole separately cat food; our cat's food; the sound waveswaves of music
a'sb ab 1) a = a particular point / а =time (a "general" meaning) period of time Today’s news, midnight news, Sunday paper (regular) last Sunday's paper an evening dress, afternoon tea an hour's walk, a year's work 2) a = time (with numerals) a = time (with numerals) a ten minutes' break, a two days' journeya ten - minute break, a two-day journey b of a ab 1) b = a certain quantity a = measure (a bit, piece, bunch etc.) a piece of cake, a bunch of roses,a two-mile walk, a three-litre can 2) b = a container (with its contents) b = a container (maybe empty) a cup of coffee, a can of beera coffee cup, a beer can
Exercise 1 a) Put the nouns below into 2 groups: countable and uncountable nouns. Work, industry, production, army, arm, goose, conversation, weather, money, hair, price, advice. b) Add -s only to the nouns that cannot be used without it. Aerobic, billiard, cloth, good, headquarter, missile, mean, outskirt, pyjama, politic, saving, serie, surrounding, setting, thank, taxi, synthesi, greeting.
c) Give the plural form of the following nouns. Medium, focus, spectrum, fistula, criterion, radius, datum, cactus, millenium, basis, memorandum, thesis, nucleus, symposium, gladiolus, maximum, axis.
Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with a (an) or some. 1. There is___paperwork to do. 2. I've got___idea. 3. I'm going on___journey, will you join me? 4. While in Britain I did___socio-cultural research. That was really___experience. 5. I've got___business to do with your company. 6. "What will you order?" "__beer and___smoked fish for me and___soda water and ___ice for my friend."
Exercise 2. Choose the correct form of the verb in the following sentences. 1. The crowd in the hall (is / are) waiting for the actor's arrival. 2. A flock of birds (have / has) shown above the water. 3. The police (know / knows) the truth. 4. Gymnastics (is / are) his favourite subject. 5. Kate's hair (is / are) cut short.
6. Our group often (stay / stays) at school after the lessons. 7. Your spectacles (is / are) on the table. 8. Billiards (was / were) always played in this club. 9. Furniture (has / have) become very expensive. 10. Some new means of transport (was / were) demonstrated at the exhibition. 11. Your uncle's money (has / have) been spent on education.