Noun A person, place, thing, or idea
Nouns: a person, place, thing, or idea.Find all the nouns: • Pilots enjoy the challenge of flying a sailplane. • Fliers talk about the sense of peace they have when gliding. • West of the Great Plains, groups of glider pilots take advantage of winds blowing against or over mountains. • Flying is a rush for many pilots.
Types of Nouns • Nominative… • subject of a clause • Mrs. Blancett’s class was very well-behaved. • The students knew how to work hard.
Another type of Noun: • Predicate nominative… • Follows a “be” verb (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) and renames the subject • The subject and the predicate nominative are essentially the same thing. • Look for the subject and verb. Decide if the verb shows a state of being. To do this, ask if the verb was done to someone/thing or if the subject just was. If the subject just was, you will have a predicate nominative and you can find out what “state” the subject is in. • At the end of the tournament, Tiger Woods was the leader. • For many of us on the team, the fans were an embarrassment. • When the plot is discovered, Andrea will be a suspect. • Before the announcement, they were the favorites to win the contest.
A Third Type of Noun: • Objective… • Direct object • Directly takes the action of the verb • “who or what was verbed?” • Indirect object • Indirectly takes the action of the verb • “who or what was the verb done to?” • V + IO + DOor V+ DO • Charles gave his momflowers. • Charles hit the ball over the fence.
Objective continued… • Object of a preposition… • A preposition… • Shows the relationship between one word and the rest of the sentence • What a squirrel can do to a tree • The object noun ends the prepositional phrase • Dexter brought tulips to his wifeat school. P OP P OP
Label the nominatives, the predicate nominatives, the DOs, IOs, and Objects of Preps. • Pilots enjoy the challenge of flying a sailplane. • Fliers talk about the sense of peace they have when gliding. • West of the Great Plains, groups of glider pilots take advantage of winds blowing against or over mountains. • Flying is a rush for many pilots.
One more type of Noun: • Possessive… • Nouns not ending in “s” get… • an ‘s EX: Mrs. Blancett → Mrs. Blancett’s • Plural nouns ending in “s” get… • just an apostrophe EX: kids → kids’ • Singular nouns ending in “s” • 1 syllable = ‘s 2 syllables = ‘ or ‘s EX: Ms. Moss → Ms. Moss’s EX: Charles → Charles’ OR Charles’s
Plurals: • Most nouns… • Just add “s” EX: cat → cats tree → trees • Nouns ending in sh, ch, x, s, and z… • Add “es” EX: mass → masses dish → dishes • Nouns ending in y… • and are preceded by a consonant • Change the “y”to and “i” and add “es” • EX: story → stories library → libraries • and are preceded by a vowel • Just add “s” • EX: boy → boys key → keys
More Plurals: • Nouns ending in o… • and are preceded by a consonant • Add “es” EX: mosquito → mosquitoes potato → potatoes • and are preceded by a vowel • Add “s” EX: radio → radios kangaroo → kangaroos • Nouns ending in ful… • Just add “s” EX: mouthful → mouthfuls (not mouthsful) • Compound nouns… (like mother-in-law) • Add “s” to the important word • EX: sister-in-law → sisters-in-law (NOT sister-in-laws)
And more Plurals: • Nouns ending in f orfe… • when the final sound is an “f” sound in the plural form: • Just add “s” EX: roof → roofs • when the final sound is a “v” sound in the plural form: • Change the “f” to a “ve” and add “s” • EX: wolf → wolves
And even more Plurals: • Words discussed as words: • Symbols, letters, numbers, and words being discusses as words get ‘s • EXAMPLES: • I had all A’s. • I made seven 90’s this semester. • No if’s, and’s, or but’s about it. • Irregular spelling / Nouns that don’t follow the rules: • Nothing to do but know memorize them. See pages 654-656 in WriteSource for some examples. • Look up words in the dictionary if you are unsure how to make them plural.
Possessive/Plural Practice:Make the nouns either plural, possessive, or both. Turn in when done. • The book belongs to Mr. Cross • Mr. Cross’s book • The bones belong to more than one dog • The dogs’ bones • The ending belongs to the story • The lair belongs to more than one crocodile • More than one leaf belongs to more than one tree • The assignment belongs to more than one student • The sound belongs to the radio • The soup belongs to more than one potato • The room belongs to Mrs. Loggins • More than one toy belongs to more than one child
Pronouns • What are they? • Why are they important?
The boy went to the store, and the boy bought some bread because the boy wanted to make a sandwich for the boy and the boy’s girlfriend before the boy and the boy’s girlfriend went to a movie that the boy and the boy’s girlfriend had been waiting to see. The boy and the boy’s girlfriend ate quickly so that the boy and the boy’s girlfriend would not be late, but when the boy and the boy’s girlfriend arrived at the theater, the boy and the boy’s girlfriend discovered that the boy and the boy’s girlfriend had the boy’s and the boy’s girlfriend’s dates mixed up. The movie would not arrive at the theater for another week. The boy and the boy’s girlfriend went home disappointed.
The boy went to the store, and he bought some bread because he wanted to make a sandwich for himself and his girlfriend before they went to a movie that they had been waiting to see. They ate quickly so that they would not be late, but when they arrived at the theater, they discovered that they had their dates mixed up. The movie would not arrive at the theater for another week. They went home disappointed.
Antecedents • The prefix ante means “before” • The antecedent of a pronoun is the word that the pronoun takes the place of. Usually the antecedent comes before the pronoun in the same sentence or in the same passage.
Personal Pronouns • First person: used in place of speaker/speakers • I, me, we, us • our, my, mine (possessive) • Second person: used in place of the person being spoken to • you • your (possessive) • Third person: used in place of what is being spoken about • He, she, it, they, them, him, her • His, hers, their, its (possessive)
Intensive Pronoun:emphasizes the noun it replaces • Itself, myself, himself, herself, yourself, themselves • Jami herself raised enough money to buy Mrs. Blancett a new car. • The dog itself chased the burglar into the police station. • Itself, myself, himself, herself, yourself, themselves • Jaymie raised enough money herself to buy Mrs. Blancett a new car. • I made myself workout this morning. ReflexivePronoun:comes after the verb, reflects back to the noun it replaces
Demonstrative Pronoun:points out a specific noun without naming that noun • This, these (close by) • That, those (farther away) • This is my favorite class. • That was a good idea. • Please take these over there. • Put those away.
Indefinite… • Sometimes pronouns do not replace specific words but are used generically • EX: anyone, someone, no one, everyone, everybody Interrogative Pronoun… • asks a question • its antecedent is in the answer • EX: who, whom, which, what
Relative • connects a dependent clause to an independent clause • EX: who, whose, which, that • Daniel, who sits in the front row, is in science class 2nd hour. • KyAnna, whose sister is a senior, has science 4th hour. • The class they are in now is math, which is their best subject. • The period that makes them happiest is lunch.
Case of Pronouns • Subjective… • Can be the subject of clauses (like nominative nouns) • EX: I, she, he, you, they, we, it, who • Objective… • Can be the object of phrases (like prepositional phrases/DO/IO) • EX: me, her, him, it, you, us, them, whom
Practice Identifying Case of Pronouns:Subjective, Objective (DO, IO, PP) • Cousin Eldred gave me a trombone. • You couldn’t find your keys on your desk? Did you look under it? • He gave the flowers to me for my birthday. • He gave me the flowers for my birthday.
Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement • Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in gender and number • Mary read her book. It was her favorite. • John read his book. He only read it to impress Mary. • Mary and John read their books. They enjoyed reading them together.
And, Or, Nor • Compound antecedent joined by “and” mean the pronoun will be plural. • Joanne and Jim go to Arizona in the winter, where they have a second home. • With compound antecedent joined by “or” or “nor,” use whichever is closest to the pronoun. • Neither the players nor the coach did his or her best during the game. • Neither the coach nor the players did their best during the game.
Pronoun Problems…what’s wrong with the following sentences? • Every student read their book. • A lawyer is the guardian of civil liberties. They protect the rights of the citizens. • Lizzy told her mother that her sweater had a hole in it. • When Alexander drove the car through the garage door, he badly damaged it. • The team plays their first game tomorrow.
Failure to agree in number • Every student read their book. • What is their replacing? • Is that singular or plural? • So the pronoun needs to be what? • A lawyer is the guardian of civil liberties. They protect the rights of the citizens. • What is they replacing? • Is that singular or plural? • So the pronoun needs to be what?
Failure to agree in number: collective nouns • When a noun stands for a group (team, committee, class) and is referring to that group as a whole, it is singular • When a collective noun refers to the individuals of the group, it is plural • The team plays their first game tomorrow. • The team plays its first game tomorrow. • The team washed their uniforms at home. • The team washed his uniform at home.
Unclear antecedent • Lizzy told her mother that her sweater had a hole in it. • Look at the second her. What is its antecedent? • How do you fix this problem? • When Alexander drove the car through the garage door, he badly damaged it. • Look at it. What is its antecedent? • How do you fix this problem?
Pronoun Practice: put in the proper pronoun, or fix the pronoun used. • When someone is tired, ______ are more likely to be forget • An athlete must train daily if ______ want to succeed. • The class must be sure to turn in ________ homework on time. • Take the radio out of the car and fix it. • The candy dish was empty, but we were tired of eating it anyway.