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  1. Noun Common Nouns & Proper Nouns- Proper nouns are capitalized. They are the names of specific people, places, things or ideas. Head south on Rt. 109. (common) We are going to the South for spring break. (proper) Name of a person, place, thing, or idea. Singular- individual (dog) Plural- multiple (dogs) Collective- noun that names a group (pack) Acts as a singular form of the word. Be wary of these with your subject verb agreement.

  2. Pronouns • Refer to nouns and are words we use instead of repeating an antecedent. • Subject Pronouns Singular Plural • First Person I We • Second Person you you • Third Person he, she, it they Object Pronouns Singular Plural First Person me us Second Person you you Third Person him, her, it them

  3. Adjective • A word that modifies (describes) a noun or pronoun • Proper adjectives (capitalized)- Spanish (adj) Inquisition (noun), Spanish moss • Articles are adjectives (indefinite- a, an definite- the)

  4. Verb • Word that shows action, being, or links a subject to a subject complement. • A verb is all about the noun (verb is the predicate) • Verbs can create an active or passive voice. • Active: The meteor struck the ship. • Passive: The ship was struck by the meteor.

  5. Verbs (cont.)

  6. Adverb • A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb • Too many adverbs make writing weak • Ex. “During the first half of the twentieth century the world greatly changed.” • Ex. “During the first half of the twentieth century the world changed.” • Which one is stronger and why? • However, adverbs give an expanded sense of action and event. • Ex.- Adverbs used in Melville’s Moby Dick- ere, diabolically, vicariously, aesthetically, vivaciously, profoundly, ruefully, obliquely, ostentatiously.

  7. Preposition • A word that shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. • They show relationships of time (before, during, after) space (in, on, beside, around), and direction (to, from, toward). • When checking subject verb agreement, take out prepositional phrases for clarity.

  8. Conjunction • A word that joins two words or two groups of words. • Coordinating conjunctions- join equals (words of similar importance) ex. And, but, or, nor, for, so, yet • Subordinating conjunctions- join unequals (lesser or greater importance) ex. If as since, when, because, etc. • Conjunctive adverbs- act as both adverbs and conjunctions and are commonly used to begin clauses. Ex. However, furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, accordingly, and therefore

  9. Interjection • A word that shows emotion but has no grammatical function • They do not join, modify, show relationships, or replace; they just throw (ject) an exclamation into (inter) the sentence. • Ex. Ah, oh, wow, yes, oops

  10. Level 2 AnalysisParts of the Sentence • Sentence- A group of words that contain a subject and its predicate, and makes a complete thought. • They make complete thoughts. • Ex. – Ishmael watched. • “If Ishmael watched”

  11. One Subject What we’re talking about Two Predicate What we’re saying about it Two parts to every sentence Shapes all levels of communication, not just the sentence. Ex. Paragraphs- What it is about, and what we are saying about it. Essays- What is the essay about, what are we saying about it?

  12. Subject • The noun or subject pronoun that the sentence is about. • Simple subject- is just the noun or pronoun that the sentence is about • Complete subject- includes the simple subject and all of its modifiers

  13. Predicate • The verb and other words that are about the subject

  14. Direct object • A noun or object pronoun that receives the action of the action verb • Alexander defeated Darius. L1 noun verb noun L2 Subject predicate direct object

  15. Indirect Object • A noun or object pronoun that is indirectly affected by the action verb, and that is located between the action verb and the direct object. • You gave me nothing. L1 pronoun verb pronoun noun L2 Subject predicate indirect direct object object

  16. Subject Complement • A noun, subject pronoun, or adjective that is linked to the subject by a linking verb and tells more about the subject. • It was Greek to me. L1 pron. verb noun prep. pron. L2 Subject predicate subject complement

  17. Level 3 Analysis- Phrases • A group of words without a subject or a predicate that acts like a single part of speech. • Not a complete idea • Ex. We can use an adjective, a prepositional phrase that acts as an adjective, or a participle phrase. • They make an idea more elaborate, more developed. • Clauses have subjects and predicates. Phrases don’t.

  18. Appositive • An interrupting definition • Enclose appositive in commas, unless they are exceptionally short and clear by themselves. • Botticelli, the Renaissance painter, painted angels. • My friend Steve works with wood.

  19. Prepositional Phrase • Begins with a preposition and ends with the object of the preposition. • They are modifiers; they act like an adjective or adverb. • The object of a preposition must be a noun or pronoun. There is never a subject. Which sentence is correct? She wrote this poem for youand I. She wrote this poem for youand me.

  20. Misplaced Modifier • Phrases that act as modifiers must be placed as close as possible to what it is modifying. Example: • Whitman got to know omnibus drivers and ferryboat pilots at a young age. • At a young age, Whitman got to know omnibus drivers and ferryboat pilots.

  21. Verbal • A verb form used as a different part of speech. • Gerunds- nouns made from an –ing verb -Living, thinking, swimming, etc. • Participle- adjective made out of a (-ing, -ed, or –en) verb -the swollen river, turning in the widening gyre

  22. Infinitive • A noun or modifier from the to- form of the verb • Ex. –to be, to think, to fish. • Infinitives act as one word • Don’t get these confused with the preposition “to” (Going to Boston.) • Don’t split infinitives. Ex.- Split infinitives are hard to really understand.

  23. Level 4 Analysis- Clause • A group of words that contains a subject and a predicate

  24. Two kinds of clauses • Independent clause- is a clause that makes sense independently and can stand on its own as a complete sentence. • Dependent clause- is a clause that does not make sense unless it can “hang on” to an independent clause.

  25. Four Sentence Structures • Simple sentence (I)- one independent clause • Compound sentence (I+I)- compound of two or more independent clauses • Complex sentence (I+D or D+I)- independent clause joined to a dependent clause or vice versa. • Compound-complex sentence (I+I+D or D+I+I) contains both compound clause structure and complex structure.

  26. Four Purposes of Sentences • Declarative- declares or states (.) • Interrogative- asks (?) • Imperative- commands (. or !) • Exclamatory- exclaims (!)