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Latin American “ Caudillismo ” PowerPoint Presentation
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Latin American “ Caudillismo ”

Latin American “ Caudillismo ”

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Latin American “ Caudillismo ”

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  1. Latin American “Caudillismo” IB Americas Ryan Davidson The American School Foundation, Mexico City 2009

  2. So independence…yeah…about that… • Liberals and revolutionaries sought to strip the church of its immense power and supplant the state/individual with the power of the church • They insisted on: - civil cemeteries and civil wedding ceremonies - public schools to teach republican virtues - free speech - individualism - seeking to end slavery and Indian tributes • Church leaders (conservatives) thought these reformers were deranged and unstable—battle lines drawn between good and evil

  3. Constitutions new on the scene since monarchical system involved centuries of teaching “divine” sanction • High turnover in constitutions which caused much confusion in early to mid 180ss • Some places offered individual ownership of previously communal lands to the indians • This backfired as whites and mestizos took advantage of the protection vacuum this created • Some countries even eliminated the tribute that indigenous populations paid • This caused problems as Bolivia and Peru had to restore it in the 1820s for government revenue

  4. Result? Reaction? • Caudillos – best described as a Latin American dictator • Some say Simon Bolivar and his style introduced “caudillismo”

  5. Portrait of a caudillo • Personalismo- ruling by the force of personality • Military- typically some kind of background whether official general or guerilla chief • Criollo/Mestizo- from old landed aristocracy or gaining power rising through military ranks • Patron- many coming from environment of the hacienda system (though not necessarily as the landowner) where they were accustomed to large amounts of power and dispensed favors and justice in a patriarchal way

  6. How did they rule: Caudillo? • Wealth seeking-sometimes acquiring it in subtle ways, other times stripping it from others (see Facundo Quiroga) • Favor trading- entire families supported a caudillo in exchange for positions, exclusive contracts, and monopolies on imports (enforced by caudillo strength) • Propaganda- monuments constructed, rallies and parades held, extravagant uniforms and military displays

  7. “The generals [and early caudillos] imposed arbitrary limits upon the peoples: they were the creators of the history of the Americas; they impressed the crowds with pomp and pageantry, by military displays as brilliant and gaudy as the processions of the Roman Catholic Church, by uniforms, medals, and military order. They labeled themselves Regenerators, Restorers,Protectors…” - Francisco Garcia Calderon (1883-1953), Peruvian historian

  8. “One word sums up the aggressiveness, insensitivity, invulnerability, and other attributes of the macho: power. It is force without the discipline of any notion of order: arbitrary power, the will without reins and without a set course” –Octavio Paz

  9. “The landowner wanted labor, loyalty, and service in peace and war. The peon wanted subsistence and security. The estanciero therefore was a protector, possessor of sufficient power to defend his dependents against marauding bands, recruiting sergeants, and rival hordes. He is also a provider, who developed and defended local resources, and could give employment, food, and shelter…And these individual alliances were extended into a social pyramid, as patrons in turn became clients to more powerful men, until the peak of power was reached and all became clients of a super-patron, the caudillo.” -John Lynch, Rosas

  10. Time out… • Check for understanding: 1) What did post-independence Liberals want? 2) What did Caudillos want? 3) Were Caudillos liberal or conservative? 4) Who would support Caudillos? Where? 5) Why would they give this loyalty? Ok…let’s look at a prime example…

  11. Argentina • Argentina independence came in 1816 • Until 1829, centralists tried to unite the new nation from Buenos Aires while people to the interior of the country wished to govern themselves in a loose federation of provinces • *sound familiar?* • Experienced a series of presidents and congresses between independence and 1829 while losing large sections of territory and fighting a war with Brazil

  12. Bernardo Rivadavia (Liberal) • A father of Argentine independ- ence and president from 1826-1827 • Believed in foreign contact, investment, free trade, and immigration • Promoted intellectual development supporting the founding of the University of Buenos Aires • Sought to separate church from state

  13. Enter Juan Manuel de Rosas: • Not an independence hero like other caudillos • An estancia owner from the interior in gaucho territory • Had his own troops whom he protected and rewarded in return for service—in 1820 even fought the capital’s authority with his small army • Rosas rose to power in the late 1820s, as the large conservative elements in Argentina were suspicious of foreigners, Rivadavia’s centralizing Constitution of 1826, and liberal changes involving the Church and society

  14. Rosas’s Rule • By 1835 Rosas had fought his way to the top by consolidating power and loyalty • Ruled from Buenos Aires but allowed interior autonomy as far as it was convenient for him (and not allowing other rival Caudillos too much power there) • Pressed for conquering of Indian lands which were then sold at low prices to estancieros • “As you know, the dispossessed (poor) are always inclined to rise against the rich and powerful. So…I thought it important to gain a decisive influence over this class in order to control and direct it.” – Rosas in a letter • Enforced labor discipline on estancias through strict punishment and torture • Recalled the Jesuits from exile and returned educational system to them

  15. Used both written and parade propaganda • His wife Encarnacion Ezcurra was a public figure (somewhat like Eva Peron) who rallied support for Rosas • He separated the world into rosistas and anti-rosistas and terrorized those who didn’t support him • Constantly trying to gain control of politics in Uruguay, fighting with Brazilian neighbors, and dealing with British and French blockades of Buenos Aires as reprisal for his tariffs and mistreatment of English and French citizens living in Argentina

  16. Eliminated elements of free press • Wanted to limit immigration • Arbitrary arrests of opponents • Violence and executions reached a peak in 1838-1842 and were carried out by a secret society called the Mazorca Need a Bill of Rights?! Question: Why would conservatives (wealthy elites and church) support the rule of Rosas?

  17. Even Caudillos fall sometimes…especially when they’ve made many enemies • While controlling Buenos Aires with a strong fist, still faced opposition from other caudillos like Justo Jose de Urquiza who overthrew him in 1852 • Urquiza was helped by a coalition of anti-Rosista interests including exiles from abroad, Uruguayans, British, French, and new immigrant businessmen—also pushed for reform by traditional farmers experiencing decline in the beef industry • Ironically Rosas fled to England where he lived as a country gentleman until his death in 1877

  18. Reading Excerpt… • Read through these two pages describing Charles Darwin’s (yes…the same guy) visit with Rosas’s men in Argentina • *may give you chills*

  19. What’s wrong with Caudillos? • So if Caudillos provided order and stability, AND provided food, shelter, employment, protection for people under them…what’s the problem?

  20. Thanks to… • A History of Latin America by Keen and Haynes • A History of Modern Latin America by Clayton and Conniff