Grammarreview Francesca Mastracci Università degli Studi Roma Tre
Verbs ModalVerbs Conditionals Verbsfollowed by infinitive or -ing
Verbs PresentTenses Present Simple -routine actions or habits Beforebreackfast, I go online to checkmyemails. -permanentsituations My grandparents live just around the corner from here -somethingalwaystrue/definite In Autumn, the trees in my garden losetheirleaves PresentContinuous -actionsthat are happening The children are sleeping, so wecan’t talk tooloudly -gerundactions Shoping online isbecoming the mostpopular way to buy books. -for future arrangement I’mhavingdinner with Amytomorrow night. -emphasis for actionsthatkeep on happening My brotherisalwaysborrowingmy laptop withoutasking. Itcannot be used with stative verbs*: eg. agree, believebelongconsider, consist, cost, disagree, exist, hate, have, know, like, love, matter, mean, need, own, prefer, realise, remain, seem, suppose, understand, want.
PastTenses Pastsimple -pastevents/actions He closed the front door, lockedit, and set off to work. Pastcontinuous -continousactions happening in the past When he called, I waswatching the television. Presentperfect -actionsstarted in the pastbutstillpermanent in the present or hasconnections with the present I’veknown Stephen sinceouruniversitydays. Wehaven’tseeneachother for monts. Presentperfectcontinuous -to emphasisethat the actionisstill happening now Ithasbeenrainingsincethismorning. (for, since, already, yet, just, ever, never)
Pastperfect -actionshappenedearlierthanothers in the past The policeweren’tawarethat the attackerhadalreadyescaped. Pastperfectcontinuous -actionshappened in the past with continuation on the past of the tense Wehadbeenworking so hard thatwedecided to take a break.
Future Tenses Future perfect -actionscompletedbefore a certain moment The studentswillhavefinishedtheircourses by the end of July. Will -future actions/predictions I will call youif I needyour help. To be going to -intentions/predictions with evidence I’mgoing to call youthisafternoon. Presentcontinuous -future arrangements I’mcallingyou in a moment. +Simple present -scheduledprograms The last bus leavesatmidnight. Future continuous -actions in progress in the future -expected future actions This time next week we’ll be sunbathing by the pool.
May Might Must
Musn’t Needn’t Ought to simliar to should – ought tosounds a littlelesssubjective
Conditionalforms Zero IF Simple present / Simple present Ifyoustudy hard, youpass the exams. First IF Simple prsesent/Future Ifyoucall me tomorrow, I’llgiveyou the informations. Second IF Simple past/ conditional (would, could, might) Ifshefound out where he was, shewouldtryto findhim. unlikely, imaginable or impossibleevents
Third IF Pastperfect / would, could, mighthave + pp If Mike hadstudiedmore, he couldhavepassed the exams. imaginaryresult of a situation in the past Mixed IF Pastperfect / conditional (would) IfJimhadn’tbeena careless driver, he would’t be injurednow. whenweimagine the hypotheticalpresentresult of a situation happened in the past IF Simple past/ wouldhave + pp If he wasn’t a doctor, he wouldn’thavebeenable to help you. whenweimagine a result of a permanent situation
Verbsfollowed by to + infinitive or -ing to + infinitive agree, appear, choose, decide, expect, hope, learn, manage, offer, promise, refuse, seem, tend, threaten, want -ing admit, avoid, bother, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, get round to, imagine, insist on, keep (on), mind, miss, suggest eitherforms eg. begin, continue, start eitherformsbutchange of meaning eg. forget, go on, remember, stop, try I forgot to talk to heraboutit. I’llneverforgettalking to her. Go on reading the text. Go on to read the text.
to followed by -ing if to is part of a phrasal verb or is in a preposition combination: I look forward to meeting your parents tonight! He confessed to eating all the chocolate. She adjusted to living on her own. He objects to spending so much money on a T.V. She devoted her life to helping poor people.