Grammar Review • Writing Effective Sentences • Punctuation Paranoia • Pesky Pronoun Problems • Passive Voice vs. Active Voice
Sentence Problems • Run-on Sentence • Comma Splice or fused sentence • Fragment Sentence • Bad construction, mixed construction • Faulty subordination • Short choppy sentences • Sentences that don’t say much
Run-On Sentence: two independent clauses that run together • The devastation from the hurricane challenges survivors to keep their families together many families have been separated, perhaps forever.
The Comma Splice or Fused Sentence • The devastation from the hurricane challenges survivors to keep their families together, many families have been separated, perhaps forever.
Mixed Construction • In the whole-word method children learn to recognize words rather than by the phonics method in which they learn to sound out letters and groups of letters.
Faulty Subordination • Although the United States is one of the wealthiest nations in the world, but almost 20 percent of our children live in poverty
Short, choppy Sentences • The hurricane devastation was great. It did a lot of damage. Families may never get back together. Maybe never.
Wordy, clumsy, awkward sentences • The devastation from the hurricane was really bad, and many of the survivors will be challenged the most by trying to find the family members that got lost during the storm, and maybe many of them won’t ever be able to find their loved ones again.
Overcoming Punctuation Paranoia • Comma Splices and fused sentences • Learn to recognize sentence patterns in order to determine how to punctuate the sentence properly • Learn to recognize conjunctions: subordinating conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions. conjunctive adverbs, correlative conjunctions • Learn 4 sentence types, independent and dependent clauses, and phrases • Master 13 comma rules; use semicolons; colons (:)
Pesky Pronouns • Pronoun Agreement • Pronoun Reference • Using 2nd person • Learning Pronoun Case: • Subjective I, he, she, you, they, who • Objective him, her, them, whom • Possessive his, hers, theirs, ours, mine
Passive Voice vs Active: To Be or Not to Be • Active voice: the subject of the sentence acts: The hurricane devastated three southern states. • Passive voice: the subject of the sentence is active upon: Three southern states were devastated by the hurricane.
Passive Voice has 1 verb To Be Is Am Are Was Were Been Being Active Voice: many verbs, all verbs that DO something: Run Complain Study Aim Understand Verbs Have two Voices