GRAMMAR Review Day 3
Warm Up Word Bank: Adjective Adverb Conjunction Noun Pronoun Preposition Verb • The shortest day is in December. • The weather is often cold at that time of year. • When plants are kept indoors, they can thrive even in cold weather. • June days are longer than those in the fall. • Summer Solstice is the name for the day of the year on which the sun shines longest. • Were you invited to a Summer Solstice party last year or the summer before? • Why nothost one this summer?
Answers to Warm Up Preposition 2. Adjective 3. Pronoun 4. Noun 5. Adverb 6. Conjunction 7. Verb • The shortest day is in December. • The weather is often cold at that time of year. • When plants are kept indoors, they can thrive even in cold weather. • June days are longer than those in the fall. • Summer Solstice is the name for the day of the year on which the sun shines longest. • Were you invited to a Summer Solstice party last year or the summer before? • Why nothost one this summer?
Prepositions • A PREPOSITION is a word that shows the relationship between a noun/pronoun and some other word in a sentence • Prepositional Phrase- includes the preposition, the object of the preposition, and the modifiers of the object Common Prepositions
Find the PREPOSITIONS… • Harriet designs buildings of many types. • She is working on several projects. • Her office is near the building structures. • She stays at her desk for many hours throughout the day. • Sometimes she travels to the construction sites. • Harriet walks around the structure after she meets the supervisor. • They talk about the project during the tour. • They discuss problems with the project as they walk.
Adjectives • Describe, or modify, a NOUN or PRONOUN • Tell what kind, which one, or how many • They can come before or after the noun • May be more than one word (hyphenated if before noun) • Predicate Adjectives follow linking verbs and describe the subject of the sentence Find the adjectives and tell what they modify: A single ship moved toward the bustling harbor. It was noisy and crowded. Many adults were happy and talkative. They were eager to reach the final destination. Two small girls peered toward the distant land. Would they like living in the large, strange country?
Comparing with Adjectives • You can use ADJECTIVES to compare two or more nouns/pronouns. • Comparative- compare 2 things • Form by adding –er to one-syllable and some two-syllable adjectives (tall– taller, sweet- sweeter) • Review spelling changes for certain adjectives on page 188 in textbook • Superlative- compare 3 or more things • Form by adding –estto one-syllable and some two-syllable adjectives (tall– tallest, sweet- sweetest) • Review spelling changes for certain adjectives on page 188 in textbook
Comparing with Adjectives • Comparing with more and most • Comparative form for most two-syllable and all three or more syllable adjectives: Add the word more before adjective • Honest- more honest, dangerous– more dangerous, healthy- more healthy • Superlative form for most two-syllable and all three or more syllable adjectives: Add the word most before adjective • Plentiful- most plentiful, comfortable- most comfortable, pleasant- most pleasant • Irregulars-
Proper Adjectives • Formed from a proper noun • Should be capitalized
Adverbs • ADVERBS modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs • Many end in –ly • ADVERBS tell how, where, when, and to what extent Find the Adverbs and tell what they modify… Anna and Tom successfully ran a company. It usually was open from 9 a.m. until 6 p.m. Eager customers would sometimes arrive early and wait patiently. Anna and Tom were so happy to see them. They were often more successful during the summer months.
Comparing with ADVERBS • Comparative- used to compare two actions. Add –er • Jill ran faster than John. • Superlative- used to compare more than two actions. Add –est • Sue ran fastest in the class. • Adverbs that end in –ly: • Just add more or most to make comparisons (or less and least) • Jill ran more quickly than John. -Comparative • Jill ran less quickly than John. • Sue ran the most quickly of all the students. -Superlative • Sue ran the least quickly of all the students.
Irregular forms of Comparison- Adverbs Try these: We liked their cookies (less, least) of all the others at the baking competition. We liked her cake (less, least) than Mark’s. The contestants with the (worse, worst) dessert failed to read the recipe carefully. The judges this year were (better, best) than last year.
Adjective or Adverb? Adjective Adverb Modifies a VERB, ADJECTIVE or ADVERB We walked quickly to the dock. We prepared extremely well, and brought the necessary sailing gear. The water was quite choppy, but we had so much fun sailing! Well is usually an adverb • Modifies a NOUN It is a good day to go sailing. The warm sun is shining and the wind is strong. • Good is always an adjective • Well is an adjective only when it means “healthy”