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Grammar Review

Grammar Review

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Grammar Review

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  1. Only in grammar can you be more than perfect.  ~William Safire Grammar Review

  2. Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or."

  3. Words and Phrases • With the –ing form (gerund) of words: • Parallel: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling. • With infinitive phrases: • Parallel: Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle.ORMary likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle. • (Note: You can use "to" before all the verbs in a sentence or only before the first one.)

  4. Clauses The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game. The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and do some warm-up exercises before the game.

  5. Lists after a colon The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and irregular verbs.

  6. Proofreading Tips to Try Skim your paper, pausing at the words "and" and "or." Check on each side of these words to see whether the items joined are parallel. If not, make them parallel. If you have several items in a list, put them in a column to see if they are parallel.

  7. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 36. A. Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle. B. Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.

  8. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 36. A. Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle. B. Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.

  9. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 37. A. The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and lacked motivation. B. The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.

  10. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 37. A. The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and lacked motivation. B. The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.

  11. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 38. A. The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game. B. The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.

  12. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 38. A. The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game. B. The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.

  13. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 39. A. The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs. B. The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and irregular verbs.

  14. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 39. A. The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs. B. The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and irregular verbs.

  15. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 40. • The teacher likes lecturing, discussing, and to work in groups. • B. The teacher likes lecturing, discussing, and working in groups.

  16. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 40. • The teacher likes lecturing, discussing, and to work in groups. • B. The teacher likes lecturing, discussing, and working in groups.

  17. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 41. • A. In counseling, I think both talking and listening are important. • B. In counseling, I think both talking and to listen are important

  18. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 41. • A. In counseling, I think both talking and listening are important. • B. In counseling, I think both talking and to listen are important

  19. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 42. • A. This car is not only fast but also it is safe to drive. • B. This car is not only fast but also safe.

  20. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 42. • A. This car is not only fast but also it is safe to drive. • B. This car is not only fast but also safe.

  21. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 43. • The trip to the city is neither long nor expensive. • The trip to the city is neither a long one nor expensive.

  22. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 43. • The trip to the city is neither long nor expensive. • The trip to the city is neither a long one nor expensive.

  23. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 44. • The factory workers were ready, able, and were quite determined to do a great job. B. The factory workers were ready, able, and determined to do a great job.

  24. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 44. • The factory workers were ready, able, and were quite determined to do a great job. B. The factory workers were ready, able, and determined to do a great job.

  25. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 45. • We cannot be worried about or terrified of the difficulties in life.  • We cannot be worried or terrified of the difficulties in life. 

  26. For each sentence, identify which sentence is parallel in structure. 45. • We cannot be worried about or terrified of the difficulties in life.  • We cannot be worried or terrified of the difficulties in life.