Grammar Review Words Phrases Clauses Sentences
Grammar Review: Words (Parts of Speech) noun pronoun adjective verb adverb conjunction preposition interjection
Nouns A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea. • Person: teacher, grandma, chef, dancer… • Place: cabin, school, city, beach… • Thing: bus, baseball, car, butterfly… • Idea: justice, friendship, love, confusion…
Nouns • The the test for common nouns. If a word can be used with the article the, then that word is a common noun. • the caveman • the politician • the country • the cat • DO NOT capitalize the first letter of common nouns • DO capitalize proper nouns (Spokane, Mrs. Egly, Manito Park) • Only nouns can be pluralized
Nouns: Practice • Label the nouns in the following sentences: • A good plumber can fix any sink. 2. The genie granted three wishes. 3. The students were from Spokane.
Pronouns Pronouns take the place of nouns. Examples: I, you, he, she, it, we, they Me, him, her, us, them
Pronouns: Practice • Label the pronouns in the following sentences: • We hope that you will join us. 2. It is up to you. 3. I saw it last night.
Adjectives • An adjective modifies or describes a noun or a pronoun. • Examples: • the tallguy • the angry customer • a strongcommitment
Adjectives • The articles— a, an, the — are adjectives. • Examples: • a month's pay • a six-year-old child • the unhappiest, richest man
Adjectives: Practice • Label the adjectives in the following sentences: • The wet cold snow was all over Sam’s jacket. • The big red truck is stuck in the muddy road. • Four people went to the small meeting.
Verbs • Verbs show action, being, or link a subject to a subject complement. • Verbs change tense and person Walk, walks, walked, walking, will walk… • Two classes of verbs • Action verbs (used to express action) Run, write, walk, laugh, etc. • Linking verbs (help to make a statement) To be (am, is, are, was, were, etc.)
Verbs • Two classes of verbs • Action verbs (used to express action) Run, write, walk, laugh, etc. • Linking verbs (help to make a statement, links a subject to a subject complement) To be (am, is, are, was,), become
Verbs: Practice • Label the verbs in the following sentences: • The kids watched cartoons all afternoon. • John drinks a cup of coffee every morning. 3. It was late, so I went home.
Adverbs • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. • Adverbs are usually –ly words. • They tell us how, when, and how often. • They can usually be moved in a sentence.
Adverbs: Practice • Label the adverbs in the following sentences: • Toto is usually a good little dog. • He reluctantly counted the cash and gave it to me. • She talks so softly.
Conjunctions • A conjunction joins words or groups of words.
Conjunctions • Coordinating conjunctions may join: single words or groups of words • They always connect items of the same kind. • Examples: For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS)
Conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions: • Are at the beginning of a dependent clause • Establish the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence. • Turn the clause into something that depends on the rest of the sentence for its meaning. • Examples: Before, since, because, when, as, that, while, although
Conjunctions: Practice • Label the conjunctions in the following sentences: 1. Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies. 2. Unless we act now, we will miss out on a good deal. 3. Sarah and Olivia were best friends until Olivia started to hang out with Amber.
Prepositions Prepositions show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in the sentence.
Prepositions • Prepositions show relationships of time. (before, during, after) Our cafeteria serves breakfast beforeschool. • Prepositions show relationships of space. (in, on, beside, around) Jaime cannot sit beside her friend. • Prepositions show relationships of direction. (to, from, toward) James walked slowly to the library.
Prepositions: Practice • Label the prepositions in the following sentences: 1. A group of Peacekeepers marches us through the front door of the Justice Building. 2. Over a period of several weeks, the competitors must fight to the death. 3. The baker sits awkwardly on the edge of one of the plush chairs.
Interjections An interjection shows emotion but has no grammar function. Interjections may be mild or strong and are punctuated differently. Examples: oh, wow, well, ugh, ew
Grammar Review: Phrases (Groups of Words) 1. noun phrases 2. prepositional phrases Later… 3. appositive phrases 4. verbal phrases • gerund • participle • infinitive
Phrases • A phrase is a group of words used as a single part of speech. • Phrases are larger than single words, but smaller than sentences.
Noun Phrases • A noun phrase is a noun together with its modifiers. • Noun phrases can be replaced by pronouns. • Examples: the large pepperoni pizza the boring teacher the lush green grass
Noun Phrases: Practice • Underline the noun phrases in the following sentences: • If I had a million dollars, I would go on a tropical vacation with my best friends. 2. I would like to order five large pepperoni pizzas for the party.
Prepositional Phrases • The first word in a prepositional phrase is the preposition. The last word is the object. It is usually a noun or pronoun. • Examples: • Jack went toHomecomingwithJill. • Jack went toHomecomingwithher.
Prepositional Phrases: Practice • Underline the prepositional phrases in the following sentences: • Our cafeteria serves breakfast before school. 2. Jaime cannot sit beside her friend. 3. James walked slowly to the library.
Grammar Review: Clauses (Groups of words which have a subject and a predicate) 1. independent 2. dependent
Independent Clauses • An independent clause has a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. • An independent clause can stand alone. It can be a complete sentence.
Independent Clauses: Examples • He sat in the cafeteria for first period. • Today is a great day. • Jill has turned in all of her homework.
Dependent Clauses • A dependent clause may have a subject and verb but does not contain a complete thought. • It is a sentence fragment(not a complete sentence).
Dependent Clauses: Examples • Because Joe was tardy • If lunch is over • Since the beginning of school
Dependent Clauses • Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions: after before than whenever although if unless where as since until wherever because so that when while
Ind. And Dep. Clauses: Practice Identify the following as dependent or independent clauses: _______1. When my family went to Seattle _______2. It is in the basement. _______3. After school today _______4. When I get home
Grammar Review: Sentences (Structures) • simple • compound • complex • compound-complex
Sentences Structures: Simple • A simple sentence has a subject and verb and is an independent clause. • Examples: I watched T.V. last night. She was angry. Aaron ate ants.
Sentences Structures: Compound • A compound sentence is a sentence with two or more independent clauses. • These two independent clauses are joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon. • Examples: Last night I watched T.V., and I ate popcorn. She was angry; she couldn’t contain her rage any longer. Aaron ate ants, but he wouldn’t eat worms.
Sentences Structures: Complex • A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. • Remember, dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. • Examples: As I watched T.V., I ate popcorn. She grew more and more angry until she couldn’t contain her rage any longer. Aaron ate ants because he was hungry.
Sentences Structures: Compound-Complex • A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. • Examples: As I watched T.V., I ate popcorn, and I drank a Dr. Pepper. She normally kept her cool, but this time she grew more and more angry until she couldn’t contain her rage any longer.
Sentences Structures: Practice • Identify the structure of each sentence. Label the clauses as ind. or dep. • WhenI set out my gear, I put my sunglasses on the blanket, and Rue gasps a little. 2. I wade into the mild current.
Sentences Structures: Practice • Label the clauses as ind. or dep. Identify the structure of each sentence. 3. Rue stuffs another handful of leaves in her mouth, and soon I am laughing. 4. While I wait for my water to purify, I strip down to my underclothes.
Grammar Review: Sentences (Parts) 1. Subject 2. Verb (predicate) 3. Linking verbs and their complements • Predicate adjective (P.A.) • Predicate nominative (P.N.) 4. Action verbs and their complements • Direct object (D.O.) • Indirect object (I.O.)
Sentence Parts: Subjects • The person or thing the sentence is 'about'. • Usually it will be the first part of the sentence. • The subject will usually be a noun phrase (a noun and the words, such as adjectives, that modify it) • The I-Pod provided music.
Sentence Parts: Verbs • Review verbs under “Parts of Speech.” • The I-Pod provided music.
Linking Verbs • Linking verbs link the subject to a subject complement which describes or renames the subject. • Most common linking verbs: to be (am, is, are, was,), become, seemed, sounded, smelled, tasted. • A subject complement is a noun, pronoun, or adjective that follows a linking verb. It identifies, describes, or explains the subject.
Linking Verbs • A subject complement is a noun, pronoun, or adjective that follows a linking verb. It identifies, describes, or explains the subject. Examples: • Michael is strong. subject verb predicate noun adjective • Michael is a quarterback. subject verb predicate noun nominative
Linking Verbs • There are two kinds of subject complements. • If the subject complement is a noun or a pronoun, it is a predicate nominative. • If it is an adjective, it is a predicate adjective. • Predicate nominatives (nouns and pronouns) explain the subject or give another name for the subject. • Predicate adjectives describe the subject.