Objectives p. 113 WHII.12 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the worldwide impact of World War II by a) explaining economic and political causes, describing major events, and identifying leaders of the war, with emphasis on Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George C. Marshall, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Hideki Tojo, and Hirohito; b) examining the Holocaust and other examples of genocide in the twentieth century; c) explaining the terms of the peace, the war crimes trials, the division of Europe, plans to rebuild Germany and Japan, and the creation of international cooperative organizations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).
Essential Understandings p. 114 12a Many economic and political causes led to World War II. Major theaters of war included Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Leadership was essential to the Allied victory. 12b There had been a climate of hatred against Jews in Europe and Russia for centuries. 12b Various instances of genocide occurred throughout the twentieth century. 12c The outcomes of World War II included the war crimes trials, the division of Europe, plans to rebuild Germany and Japan, and the establishment of international cooperative organizations. 12c The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was issued in 1948 to protect the “inherent dignity and…the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family….”
Essential Questions p. 114 12a What were the causes of World War II? 12a What were the major events of World War II? 12a Who were the major leaders of World War II? 12b Why did the Holocaust occur? 12b What are other examples of genocides in the twentieth century? 12c What were the outcomes of World War II? 12c What were the war crimes trials? 12c How did the Allies promote reconstruction of the defeated powers? 12c What were the international cooperative organizations created after World War II?
Why do I need to know this? p. 114 • Hitler’s actions set off WWII. The results of the war still affect the politics and economics of today’s • world. 2. WWII established the role of the U.S. as a leading player in international affairs. 3. The violence against Jews during the Holocaust led to the founding of Israel after WWII. 4. The Allies’ victory in WWII set up conditions for both the Cold War and today’s post-Cold War world.
Major Leaders of the War p. 115
Allies p. 115 1. United States a. Franklin D. Roosevelt – US president • Harry Truman became president when FDR died in April 1945 b. Generals • Dwight D. Eisenhower – supreme Allied commander in Europe • Douglas MacArthur – US general in the Pacific • George Marshall – Army Chief of Staff during WWII 2. Britain – Winston Churchill – prime minister 3. U.S.S.R. – Joseph Stalin
Axis p. 115 1. Germany – Adolf Hitler – dictator of Germany a. Erwin Rommel – the “Desert Fox” 2. Italy – Benito Mussolini – dictator of Italy 3. Japan a. Hideki Tojo – Japanese general; directed the whole Japanese war effort b. Isoroku Yamamoto – Japanese admiral – planned attack on Pearl Harbor c. Hirohito – emperor of Japan
Causes of World War II p. 115-117
Aggression by Totalitarian Powers p. 115 1. Japan overran Manchuria in September 1931 a. invaded China in summer of 1937 • Italy invaded Ethiopia in October 1935 3. Germany – March 1936: Hitler invaded the Rhineland a. March 1938 – Hitler marched troops into Austria, known as the • Anschluss
Italy Attacks Ethiopia, 1935 Emperor Haile Selassie
Nationalism p. 115 1. Hitler’s desire to unite all German-speaking people in one country 2. Mussolini’s desire to expand Italy’s influence and make it a world power 3. Japanese desire to unite all Asians under one empire and expel the European influence
The Treaty of Versailles p. 115 1. harsh sanctions against Germany caused resentment of the other European nations
Weakness of the League of Nations p. 115 1. Europe had looked to the US to take a lead role in the League of Nations 2. the League was unable to militarily help China and Ethiopia
Appeasement p. 117 1. Great Britain and France were desperate to avoid another global war 2. September 12, 1938 – Hitler demanded the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) be given to Germany a. Britain and France let him have it in the Munich Pact
Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.
Major Events of the War p. 117-119
Just Before the War p. 117 1. August 23, 1939 – Hitler and Stalin signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact a. Hitler and Stalin agreed not to attack one another and agreed to split up Poland
The Nazi-SovietNon-Aggression Pact, 1939 Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov
September 1, 1939 p. 117 1. Germany invaded Poland (beginning of World War II) 2. blitzkrieg – lightning war 3. Poland fell in about 2½ weeks
Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939 Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”]
April 9, 1940 p. 117 1. Germany invaded and took Norway 2. gave Germany access to the Atlantic Ocean
Fall of France p. 117 • May 10, 1940 – Germany invaded France • snuck into France through the Ardennes Forest 3. allies were caught off guard and evacuated from Dunkirk on May 26, 1940 a. 338,000 soldiers over nine days – one of the largest evacuations of all time • June 14, 1940 – Germany captured Paris 5. France was divided into two sections a. northern part was controlled by Germany b. southern part was a puppet government sympathetic to the Nazis • called Vichy France – headed up by Marshall Philippe Petain • assisted in some military operations and finding Jews
Battle of Britain p. 117 1. battle for air control over Britain 2. August 1940 – Germany bombed airfields and aircraft factories 3. September 7 to November 3, 1940 – Germany bombed London a. tried to damage the morale of the people – did not work Battle
The United States p. 119 • 1937 – Congress passed Neutrality Acts enforcing a “cash and carry policy” • 1940 – Destroyers for Bases Agreement FDR agreed to give Britain 50 destroyers for bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda and the British West Indies • 1940 – Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act which authorized FDR to lend war equipment to any country deemed vital to the national security of the US
U. S. Lend-Lease Act,1941 Great Britain.........................$31 billionSoviet Union..........................$11 billionFrance..................................$3 billionChina..................................$1.5 billionOther European......................$500 millionSouth America.......................$400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
German invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) p. 119 1. June 22, 1941 – Hitler attacked the USSR a. Hitler claimed he needed the “living space” vital to Germany’s future b. Ukrainian wheat and Caucasian oil • caught Stalin off guard • Stalin ordered a scorched-earth policy • captured over half a million Soviet soldiers • December 2, 1941 – the Germans were just outside Moscow a. The Soviet Union began pushing the Germans back