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  1. Zimbabwe • White settler colony • Blacks relocated to overcrowded reserves • Federation with Nyasaland (Malawi) and Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)

  2. Ian Smith UDI 1965 • Broke away from Britain • Attempted to have an apartheid system • Reduced African rights

  3. Two parties • Joshua Nkomo: ZAPU--Ndebele • Robert Mugabe: ZANU--shona • Influence from China and Soviet Union

  4. Large number of refugees • Mid-1970s: Rhodesian security forces carried out a full scale counter-insurgency war, about half financed by South Africa • Many recruits for the guerrillas • Attacks from (and into) Mozambique • “Flame”

  5. Internal settlement in December 1979 • Independence • Ethnic politics: Shona and Ndebele continued • Almost all refugees returned home

  6. Refugees and Migrants Migrants face expulsion and hardships Refugees can contribute labor and help economically as consumers

  7. Definition of refugee (UNHCR) • Fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion • Outside his/her country • Unable, unwilling (fear but not personal convenience) to return

  8. UNHCR • Protection not for internally displaced persons • But cross-mandate approach: assistance to all needy people in an area to minimize competition and jealousy

  9. Africa: movement of people through time • Bantu migration • Colonial regulations caused men to work in mines--often in another area or other country • Ethnic groups separated during colonial period and then by new nation-states

  10. Current estimates of refugees • Africa 6.7 million refugees (9.2-14.3 million displaced persons) • World 18.5 million refugees (32.7-47.9 million displaced persons)

  11. Numbers: politically manipulated • Get more aid for larger numbers • Can change quickly--both increase and decrease

  12. Demographics • Many are women and children (often left out) • Many are poor and elderly • Some groups mainly male

  13. Positive effects of refugees • Greater market for local goods and foods • Can provide labor • Aid agencies build infrastructure (roads, water supplies, health clinics)

  14. Negative effects of refugees • Environmental degradation: large influxes cause damage to forests, animals overgraze lands • Reduce water volume and quality (silt the rivers), soil fertility affected • Tensions between refugees and local host populations

  15. Reasons for Refugees in Africa • Flagrant violation of human rights • Wars of national liberation • Algeria,, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau • Zimbabwe--750,000 refugees inside and outside the country (Movie: Flame) • Namibia, Eritrea • Western Sahara--in process

  16. Internal Repression • South Africa--had 3.5 million internally displaced--homelands policy under apartheid • 40,000 to 100,000 refugees and political exiles

  17. Repatriation • Land mines make it difficult to return to the land • Land has been sold or confiscated • War-torn economies

  18. Ethnic persecution • Burundi • Rwanda

  19. Religious persecution • Jehovah’s witnesses in Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique • Christians and traditional religionists in Sudan

  20. Ideological differences • “Cold-war” politics--Ethiopia • Lack of multiparties and dictatorships--political refugees --Malawi

  21. Migration in Africa • some est. 35 million • Plantation and farms-Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire to Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania • Sudanese migrated to the Middle East

  22. South Africa--mines • To South Africa from: Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe • 78% in 1978 to 40% foreigners mid-1980s • 176,000 (1989) to 153,000 (1992) foreign contract workers • 1990s/2000s mostly from Mozambique and Lesotho

  23. West Africa • Liberian civil war, ethnic conflicts in Sierra Leone • Cote d’Ivoire current coup • Flow goes from the poorer inland Sahelian countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger) to richer coastal states (Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria) • Spontaneous seasonal and long-term

  24. Brain Drain: Professionals • Thousands of Ghanaian professionals in Nigeria • Brain drain from Uganda and Nigeria, to South Africa; from South Africa to Europe and North America, etc.

  25. Migration • Usually of males from the rural areas • Question of whether agricultural production is affected • Comparisons with other countries need to look at who does the farming, as well as if male returns to do heavy agricultural work

  26. Agricultural production • Can decline if mostly women are left without capital and improved technologies • Can improve if remittances are used to hire labor and pay for agricultural investments (e.g., equipment, inputs)

  27. Health Problems • Migrants are a source of STIs/ STDs (e.g., HIV/AIDS) • Strain already under-funded health systems

  28. Causes of the refugee situation in Africa • The weak state • Colonialism bolstered state societies • Creation of tribes and ethnic groups pitted against each other for resources

  29. Why is the state weak? • Composed of a political elite • Not a large enough national middle or upper category of those with resources and education • Clientelism-networks of kinspeople, allied ethnics, party officials, civil servants, soldiers, traders • Patrimonial systems of rule

  30. States are composed of culturally diverse social groups (tribes) • Response to rivalries in 19th century • State does not control the means of production and distribution • Charismatic leaders sway populations • Political entrepreneurs cast their appeal in ethnic terms

  31. African political life consists of clientelist factions.. [ethnicity] • Conflict send waves of refugees to neighboring countries • Massive exit from the state • Cheap weapons = warrior bands

  32. Countries both produce refugees and grant asylum • Ethiopia • Eritrea • Sudan • Mozambique (previously) • Zimbabwe

  33. Sudan • Independence exacerbated interregional tensions • North: Muslim, Arabized, Arabic Language • in power (helped by colonial past--British and state societies) • looks to North Africa and Middle East (Libya, Iran, Iraq, Yemen) • South:Christian or animists, English language, pastoral people

  34. Sudan (produces and receives refugees) • Some refugee groups all young males • About 200,000 in Ethiopia, but millions suffering in south, 1/4 million around Khartoum • Old refugee camps of Ethiopians

  35. Chad: no refugee there from other countries • Muslim northerners, • Traditional religionists/Christians southerners • Originally lack of economic opportunity = emigration to Nigeria, CAR, Sudan • Then 500,000 left for Cameroon, Nigeria, CAR: none labeled as refugees

  36. 1981: 400,000 refugees after political upheaval • International intervention: French,against Libyans • Large numbers of women and children

  37. Uganda • Colonial period: Kabaka: king of the Buganda, large centrally organized kingdom Protestants and Catholics early on • Ganda built up enormous lead in education, politics

  38. Other kingdoms wanted participation • Political parties: Buganda and smaller centralized won, Obote became Prime minister and Kabaka became president • But then Idi Amin came in and ousted Obote

  39. Idi Amin • Brutal: 300,000 killed • Asian Exodus • Tanzanians restored order (1977--first time external country had done that)

  40. Uganda had 5 conflicts • Banyrwanda--mostly settled in the country, but no rights • (Origins: a new issue for Africa) • West Nile refugees (350,000): but were treated harshly • Karamoja: armed • Luwero triangle:750,000 around Kampala (massacres)

  41. Fall of Obote and the Acholi vs. Langi • Rise of Museveni • 160,000 refugees returned • A push factor from Sudan, as well as a pull factor from Uganda

  42. Southern Africa • White Settler colonies prevented negotiated decolonlization • mass appropriation of lands • mobilization along lines of ethnicity • African protests were weak • South Africa assisted white regimes (Zimbabwe) and then tried to de-stabilize black regimes (Angola and Mozambique)

  43. Angola • Large white settler population after WW II • Harsh treatment of Africans

  44. Liberation Movements • MPLA: urban, Luanda, mestico and assimilado, Augustino Neto: Cuba and Soviet Union • UPA/FNLA--Holden Roberto: wanted to reconstitue the Kongo--in with Mobuto/US • UNITA: Jonas Savimbi: rural, Ovimbundu--South Africa/US • 1/2 million refugees

  45. Mozambique • Harshness of colonial regime produced refugees to Tanzania and Zambia • FRELIMO: moderate at first (Edwardo Mondlane), then leftist-Marxist (Samora Machel) • Multiracial

  46. Millions of refugees, esp. to Malawi • S. Africa financed RENAMO • Brutal

  47. After independence, 1975 • most refugees returned home