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Latin American

Latin American

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Latin American

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  1. Latin American

  2. Latin America • Latin America: landmass that stretches southward from the Rio Grande to the tip of South America • Official language is either Spanish or Portuguese, based on Latin • Spanish were the first to explore and settle

  3. Latin American Dishes • Chorizo: Spicy sausage, flavors many stews • Ceviche: appetizer of raw fish marinated in citrus juice until firm & opaque • Fish drained and served with chilies, tomatoes & onions • Sopa: soup features meat as the main ingredients

  4. Mexico

  5. Geography and climate of Mexico • Deserts, mountains, grasslands, woodlands, and tropical rain forests • Depending on the climate depends what they can grow • North – hilly – suited for ranching • South – coffee & sugarcane

  6. Mexican culture • Aztecs: original inhabitants of Mexico • Contributed chocolate, squash, tomatoes, vanilla, corn, peppers, peanuts tomatoes, avocadoes, bean, sweet potatoes, pineapples, papayas • Boiled, broiled, steamed, or ate food raw • Spanish introduced peaches, rice, beef, wheat, oil, wine, cinnamon, cloves, apricots, & chickens

  7. Mexican culture cont. • Mexican life style • Living quarter wealthiest home but simple - handmade items • Sala: living room • Close-knit families • Mexican holidays • Most Roman Catholics • Food plays a major role

  8. Mexican culture cont. • Mexican agriculture • Farmers - cannot afford modern machinery or fertilizers • Land closets to United states is dry and not suitable for large animals • Corn is major crop - beans are second • Sugarcane, coffee, tomatoes, green peppers, peas, melons, citrus fruits, strawberries, and cocoa beans • Depending on part of the country if there is seafood or livestock, what kinds of fruit and field vegetables

  9. Mexican Cuisine • Corn • Tortilla: flat, unleavened bread made from cornmeal and water • Comal - lightly greased griddle • Northern Mexico with use wheat flour • Enchiladas - fill tortillas, baked and serve with cheese and red/green tomatoes sauce • Tostadas - fry tortillas and garnish

  10. Mexican Cuisine cont. • Corn • Quesadillas – tortilla folded around cheese & grilled • Burritos - tortilla wrapped around meat & beans • Taco - crisp, fried tortillas filled

  11. Mexican Cuisine cont. • Corn • Tamale - use corn husk stuffed with masa and cook over open fire • Masa: corn is dried, cooked, soaked in limewater and then ground into a dough • Masa harina: dried ground masa – course-grained corn flour

  12. Mexican Cuisine cont. • Bean • Frijoles refritios: refried beans: cook beans, smash, and fry them again • Red or pinto beans • Peppers • Sweet peppers - mild flavor • Chilies: hot peppers • Red - dried except red bell and pimientos • Green - ripe • Chipotle chilies – smoked jalapenos

  13. Mexican Cuisine cont. • Vegetables & fruits • Vegetables are used in dishes but rarely eaten raw • Guacamole: avocadoes smashed with tomato and onion • Squash • Tomatillos – green tomatoes • Plantains: green starchy fruit that have a bland flavor and look like large bananas - usually cooked

  14. Mexican Cuisine cont. • Desserts • Fresh fruits and sweet tamales • Flan - large amounts of egg and sugar (caramel custard) • Rice pudding • Chocolate • Came to Mexico from Maya in Central America • Different forms of hot chocolate • Used in sauces and main dishes

  15. Mexican Cuisine cont. • Sauces and stews • Simple sauces - chilies and/or sweet peppers mixed with finely chopped onions and tomatoes • Mole: chilies, almonds, raisins, garlic, sesame seed, onions, tomatoes, cinnamon, cloves, coriander seeds, and anise food • Finely chopped and added to chicken stock • Just before serving add unsweetened chocolate • Stews are cooked for long time over low heat

  16. Mexican Cuisine cont. • Beverages • Chocolate drinks and coffee • Molinillo - used to beat chocolate into a foam before serving • Café con leche - coffee served with milk

  17. Salsa • Salsa: may refer to any type of sauce • In American English, it usually refers to the spicy, often tomato-based, hot sauce typical of Mexican cuisine, particularly those used as dips. • United States has popularized and commercialized as a Mexican creation, there are many types of salsa which usually vary throughout Latin America.

  18. Salsa cont. • Types of salsa • Salsa roja - “red sauce“ - is used as a condiment in Mexican cooking • Made with cooked tomatoes, chili peppers, onion, garlic, and fresh cilantro • Pico de gallo - “fresh sauce”, “chopped sauce”, or "Mexican sauce" • Made with raw tomatoes, lime juice, chili peppers, onions, cilantro leaves, and other coarsely chopped raw ingredients. • Salsa verde - "green sauce" • Made with tomatillos , usually cooked.

  19. Salsa cont. • Types of salsa cont. • Mango salsa is a spicy-sweet sauce made with mangoes • Used as a garnish on grilled chicken or grilled fish due to the sauce's complementary flavors. • Chipotle salsa is a smoky, spicy sauce • Made from smoked jalapeño chili peppers, tomatoes, garlic and spices.

  20. Mexican Meals • Families with large incomes often eat 4 meals a day • Desayuno - substantial breakfast • Fruit, tortillas, bread or sweet rolls, eggs or meat, coffee or chocolate • Comida: main meal, served in middle of the day between 1 and 3 • Six dishes - appetizer, soup, small dish of stew, main course, beans, dessert, and coffee - tortillas • Siesta: rest period

  21. Mexican Meals cont. • Merienda - light snack, around 5 or 6 • Coffee or chocolate, fruit, and pan dulce (sweet bread) • Cena – supper – between 8 and 10 • Similar to comida but lighter and smaller

  22. Central America

  23. Central America • Allspice – flavor sweet & savory dishes • Dried unripped berry • Chayote – squash like fruit, eaten raw or cooked and stuffed with cheese • Guatemalan • Oysters • Pollopepian – chicken in a spicy sauce with sesame and pumpkin seeds

  24. Central America cont. • El Salvador • Pupusa – corn cake filled with refried beans, cheese & pork served with cabbage, onion, and carrot slaw • Nicaragua • Nactamal – cabbage, plantain & pork steamed in banana leaves • Costa Rica • Gallo pinto – fried black beans and rice • Arroz contuna – rice with tuna

  25. South America

  26. Geography and climate • Mountains • Grasslands • Jungles – Rain Forest • Forests • Plateaus • Deserts

  27. South American Culture • Inca: group of Native South Americans • High level of civilization • Built large empire in the Andes Mountains • Great wealth and great poverty

  28. South American Cuisine • Food customs in South America have developed on a regional basis because of the geographic isolation of the different areas • European colonists introduced many staple foods • Wheat & hog being important to many Latin American except Argentina & Mexico • Manioc or Cassava: starchy root plant eaten as a side dish and used in flour form in cooking and baking

  29. Andean Countries • Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, & Chile • Geography – mountains, seacoast, and tropical rainforest • Usually less spicy than Mexico & Central America • Potatoes may have originated here • Cassava and chilies thrive in tropical areas • Grazing land limited so meat often from chickens, guinea pigs & llamas • Llama meat salted dried to make charqui (jerky)

  30. Andean Countries cont. • Ecuador • Bananas • Colombia • Potatoes high in the mountains • Ajiaco: soup made with potatoes, chicken, corn, and cassava • Do not eat much meat • Coffee is their number one export • Coffee is available but they do not drink much

  31. Andean Countries cont. • Peru • Reflects traditions of the Inca and Spanish • Inca’s would preserve their potatoes by freeze-drying them - they would freeze at night and then set them out in the sun to dry, repeat this process unit they became hard and light • Potatoes - used in many dishes, poverty level will depend on what they will do with potatoes • Aji: local chilies, used for seasoning and is made into a hot sauce • Ceviche: marinated raw fish

  32. Venezuela • Fertile soil and tropical areas • Banana, plantain, and coconut • Arepa: corn pancake similar to tortilla

  33. Chile • Very little red meat • Seafood is plentiful and inexpensive • Ceviche – many different forms • Marinated raw fish • Dished • Porotos granados – bean stew • Pastel de choclo - ground beef casserole with corn batter topping • Chupe de marisco – shellfish casserole

  34. Argentina • Pampas - rich lands where large herd of cattle and sheep are raise • Gauchos: nomadic cowboy of the South American pampas • Beef major industry and national food • Beef often grilled outdoors • Empanadas: small turnovers fill with meat, vegetables, & fruit • Appetizer • Pasta & yeast bread are as common as tortilla

  35. Brazil • Dende oil: palm oil that gives dishes a bright yellow-orange color • Manioc, rice, and beans are all staple foods • Feijoanda completa: variety of meat served with black beans and seasonings • Guarana fruit – whose seeds contain caffeine, is made into a popular soft drink, a powder, and syrup

  36. Uruguay • Dulce de leche: milk cooked with sugar slowly at low temperature and develops a taste like caramel • Meat cooked on open flame over charcoal • Meat skewered before grilling • Hungara: spicy hot dog, popular grilled item