clauses n.
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  1. Clauses

  2. What is a clause?

  3. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and its verb.

  4. A phrase DOES NOT contain a subject and its verb whereas a clause ALWAYS contains a subject and its verb.

  5. Examples: 1. Whenever I see a woodpecker subject verb

  6. 2. The girl with the yellow ribbons in her hair stood outside of the movie theater. subject verb

  7. General Categories There are two general categories of clauses: Independent (or main) clauses AND Subordinate (or dependent) clauses

  8. Independent clause Contains a subject, its verb, and a COMPLETE THOUGHT. Independent clauses can function as sentences.

  9. Example I lost a shiny ring at the amusement park. verb This sentence contains a subject, its verb, and a complete thought. This is an independent clause. subject

  10. Subordinate clause Contains a subject and a verb BUT DOES NOT EXPRESS A COMPLETE THOUGHT!!!! Subordinate clauses cannot stand alone as sentences; to make sense, they must attach to independent clauses. For this reason, subordinate clauses are sometimes called DEPENDENT clauses.

  11. Example Whenever I go to the gym subject verb While this group of words contains a subject and a verb, it does not contain a complete thought. This is a subordinate clause. Subordinate clauses are sometimes called dependent clauses.

  12. Whenever I go to the gym, I drive through my old neighborhood. This sentence now makes sense because the meaning of the subordinate clause is completed. Independent clause Subordinate clause

  13. Types of subordinate clauses Adjective clause – used as an adjective; modifies a noun or a pronoun A family is more than a group of people who are related. “who are related” modifies people (a noun) and functions as an adjective. Since it contains a subject and its verb, it is a clause. Therefore, it is a subordinate clause functioning as an adjective.

  14. Keys to recognizing adjective clauses • Look for key words that introduce adjective clauses • Relative pronouns: who, whose, whom, which, and that Ex. I bought a car that travels very fast. • Relative adverbs: when, where, why Ex. Some people still live in hunter-gatherer societies, where a “family” may have 20 to 200 members.

  15. Essential adjective clauses • Provides information that is essential, or necessary, to identify the preceding noun or pronoun. Ex. People who drink and drive can serve long prison sentences.

  16. Nonessential adjective clauses • Add information to a sentence whose meaning is already clear Ex. Irene, who is your first cousin, was married last fall. NONESSENTIAL CLAUSES ARE SET OFF BY COMMAS!!!!

  17. GUIDELINES FOR USING THAT AND WHICH Writers are often not sure whether to use that or which to introduce essential (restrictive) or nonessential (nonrestrictive) clauses. Follow these guidelines to use these words correctly. That is used to introduce an essential clause. Ex. The reception was held at a hotel that looks like a castle. Which is used to introduce a nonessential clause. Ex. The Clairmont Hotel, which looks like a castle, is 100 years old.

  18. Adverb clauses • Subordinate clauses that modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. (Answer all of the questions answered by an adverb) Ex. Most children leave home when the time is right.

  19. Subordinating Conjunctions • Begin adverb clauses • See page 21 in your Grammar Mastery – for Better Writing workbook

  20. Examples - Closely examine the following groups of words. Name each group as either a phrase or a clause. • Whenever I see a fancy car • Screaming at the top of my lungs • That she is alone • Since the coach was angry • Because Mary likes the band N’Sync

  21. Unless she comes for dinner • On which I spent several days • With a sick child in the back of the car • Tattered and worn from years of use