Clauses Chapter 4
Clauses • When he was bedridden • After he played tennis • He stopped at the pharmacy.
Clauses • A clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a predicate (verb). • Analyzing sentences can be fun. • An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. • Try to view a sentence as a puzzle to be conquered. • A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence; it is subordinate to an independent clause. A dependent clause needs the rest of the sentence for understanding’s sake. • When you successfully pick apart a sentence,
Adjective Clauses • An adjective clause is a dependent clause that functions like an adjective in a sentence. • Your essay exam, that you still must prepare for, will probably be easier than a cumulative test. • It modifies a noun or pronoun in another clause.
Adjective Clauses • Most adjective clauses begin with relative pronoun. • The pronoun functions within the clause as either a noun or adjective. • Who • Whom • Whose • Which • That • The pencil that I used broke.
Adjective Clauses • Some adjective clauses begin with relative adverbs. They modify verbs in the adjective clauses. • When • Where • Why • The exam should not be prepared for in the gym, where students are noisy.
Adverb Clauses • Dependent clauses that function like adverbs in a sentence • After Carter described his weekend, he elaborated on his future plans. • Usually describe the sentence’s verb, but can describe an adjective or adverb • Sometimes describe the entire independent clause • Begin subordinating conjunctions • Box on p. 95 • Usually set off by commas
Adverb Clauses • An elliptical adverb clause begins with a subordinating conjunction but drops one or more words that can be understood by the context. • While working on his paper, Caleb doodled on his instruction page. • While Caleb was working on his paper, Caleb doodled on his instruction page.
Adverb Clauses • After the students finished the essay, they sighed in relief. • While writing the essays, the students wrote furiously. • The students were happy because the exam was finished.
The Noun Clause • Dependent clause that functions as a noun • Subject, predicate noun, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, and appositive • Can begin with subordinating conjunctions (list on p. 95), most commonly that or whether • Look for the function of the clause in the sentence. • Often the that is understood • Can begin with indefinite relative pronouns- list on p. 100
Noun Clauses • A common misconception is that studying the night before a test is best. • Some say this method keeps the material fresh in the student’s mind. • Whoever studies daily will probably get better grades on tests.
Combinations of Clauses • A simple sentence consists of only independent clause (1 IC). –Abbreviation S • A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a semicolon or by a comma and a coordinating conjunction. There are no dependent clauses in a compound sentence (2 or more ICs). –Abbreviation CD • A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses (I IC + 1 or more DCs). –Abbreviation CX • A compound-complex sentence includes two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses (2 or more ICs + 1 or more DCs). --Abbreviation CD-CX
Practice • I will sleep in a tent tonight. • My brother needs a haircut. • She made a bad decision.
Serious Errors- A letter grade off in college • A fragment is a group of words wrongly punctuated as if it were a complete sentence. It could be either a phrase or a dependent clause. (frag.) • Because of sickness Miss MacQuarrie • A comma splice is two sentences incorrectly joined by only a comma. (cs) • Miss MacQuarrie was sick, she lost her voice. • A fused sentence is two sentences incorrectly joined without any punctuation. (fs) • Miss MacQuarrie loves her students and she misses them when she cannot teach them.
To Fix Fragments • Add missing information to make the fragment into a sentence • Add the appropriate punctuation • Because of sickness Miss MacQuarrie • Because of sickness Miss MacQuarrie did not teach on Monday.
To Fix CSs and FSs • Add a period and a capital letter. • ; Add a semicolon • : Add a colon (only if the second sentence restates, re-explains, or redefines the first sentence) • Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOY) • Add the missing coordinating conjunction in the case of a fs • Change one of the sentences to a dependent clause • Miss MacQuarrie was sick, and she lost her voice. • Miss MacQuarrie loves her students, and she misses them when she cannot teach them.
Make the following fragments into sentences. • jump into the rushing river • under a holly bush • in Juneau, Alaska • twisted her hair