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  1. Clauses Oops! I think you have the wrong clause!

  2. What is the difference between a phrase and a clause? • A phrase is a group of words, while a clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject. A clause can be used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.

  3. Some Facts About Clauses: • EVERYclause has a subjectand a predicate. SOMEclauses will express complete thoughts (these are called independent, or main,clauses). SOME clauses will NOTexpress complete thoughts (these are called subordinate, or dependent, clauses). When a sentence includes an independent clause and a subordinate clause, it is a __________ sentence. complex

  4. Subordinate clauses can function as nouns, adverbs, or adjectives in a sentence. *Underline the subordinating clause in each sentence. Once the room is finished, we will buy new furniture for it. Did you see the woman, whose entire family was killed, on the Biggest Loser? The book that I read yesterday was about World War II. Don’t forget to wipe your shoes before you step on the carpet. _____________________ _________________________ _________________ _________________________ (Note: The clauses may be at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the sentence.)

  5. Adjective Clauses The adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun. Note the difference between the following: ADJECTIVE: the blonde woman ADJECTIVE PHRASE: the woman with blonde hair ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: the woman who has blonde hair An adjective clause is usually introduced by a _________ _________. relative pronoun

  6. Common Relative Pronouns that which who whom whose • Underline the adjective clause in each sentence. The prizes went to students who had scored the most points. This is the system that works best for me. The boy whose dog won received a ribbon. __________________________________ ____________________________ ___________________

  7. Occasionally adjective clauses can be introduced by when or where. • Examples: That is the box where I put all of my books. (it modifies “box”, a noun, so it is still an adjective clause). Do you remember the time when I lost my book? (modifies time) BE CAREFUL—MANY TIMES WE LEAVE OFF THE RELATIVE PRONOUN WHEN WE SPEAK Examples: (Can you tell what was left out?) I haven’t seen the souvenirs she bought in Mexico. that A boy I know is the drummer for the band we saw in concert. who

  8. Adverb clauses usually answer where, when, how, or why to the verb, or to what extentor under what condition. _______________ • Note the difference between the following: ADVERB: He fell down. ADVERB PHRASE: He fell down the hill. ADVERB CLAUSE: When he fell down, he hurt his knee. An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or an adverb.

  9. Tell which word each clause modifies and how it modifies it. where you sit When winter sets in, many animals hibernate. (tells ) You may sit wherever you wish. (tells ) when animals hibernate Meg looks as though she has seen a ghost. (tells ) how Meg looks Josh is happy because he has a new job. (tells ) why Josh is happy Ty can run faster than Matt can. (tells ) how much faster to what extent If Cailyn is not sick, we will go to the fair. (tells ) under what conditions we will go

  10. Note: When a sentence begins with an adverb clause, it is followed by a comma, but if the clause is at the end of the sentence, you do not need a comma to separate it from the independent clause. When the clause is in the middle of the sentence, you may or may not need to set it off with commas (one before, and one after). Common Subordinating Conjunctions after as though since when although because so that whenever as before than where as if how though wherever as long as if unless whether as soon as in order that until while

  11. A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun. Common Introductory Words for Noun Clauses how whatever which whom that when who whomever what whether whoever why

  12. *List the 5 different ways a noun clause can be used. That she was only sixteen was a secret at the party. ________ _subject We suddenly remembered who she was. _______________ direct object The judges gave whoever participated a ribbon. ____________ indirect object I was amazed by how tall the building was. _______________ object of prep. A stuffed animal was what Mary was trying to win. ____________________ predicate nominative

  13. *Underline the subordinate clause and label it as an adjective, adverb, or noun clause. Since none of us owned bikes, we decided to rent some. __________ adverb clause _______________________________ adjective clause The man who rented us the bikes was helpful. ____________________ _________________________ adverb clause We were in trouble when Garrett’s bike got a flat tire. _______________ ___________________________________ How we would repair it became the topic of a heated discussion. ____________________ ________________________ noun clause

  14. We decided to take the bike to whatever bike shop was nearest us. __________________ ____________________________________ noun clause The thing that worried us was getting our money back for fixing it. __________________ ________________ adjective clause When we returned our bikes, we showed the man the receipt. ___________________ ______________________________ adverb clause He refunded us the money we had spent to fix the tire. ____________________ _____________________________ adjective clause (the word “that” was left off)