As you know, a clause is…. • Group of words with a subject & verb • May or may not be a complete sentence
2 Overall Kinds of Clauses: Independent(main) & Dependent (Subordinate)
Pretty self-explanatory… An independent clause relies on nothing else.(It can stand alone) Think… S+V+Complete Thought= Indep. Clause Example: After I finish studying, I will go to the movies.
A dependent clause relies on the rest of the sentence…it can’t stand alone because it’s “dependent”. Think…S + V + No complete thought = Dep. Clause Example: After I finish studying, I will go to the movies.
There are 3 specific types of dependent (subordinate) clauses… 1. Adjective Clause *Describes a Noun or Prn *Describes a Verb, Adjective, or Adverb 2. Adverb Clause 3. Noun Clause *The clause is used as aNoun
Definition of an Adjective Clause: A dependent clause that describes a noun or pronoun. Example: Ms. Jackson had shown slides that she had taken in Egypt. How do we know this is a clause and not a phrase? **It has a subject-she & a verb-had taken** Why is it an adjective clause? **Because that group of words is describing a noun=slides**
Hint! An adjective clause usually starts with a relative pronoun! “We already covered relative pronouns, so this will be easy!” Ok, what’s a relative pronoun again? that, which, who, whom, whose Remember those things that introduced a subordinate clause? These are those things!!!! Example: Leonardo da Vinci was the artist who painted the Mona Lisa. “Hey, that’s a subordinate clause!”
Definition of an Adverb Clause: A dependent clause that describes a verb, adjective, or adverb. Example: If it does not rain tomorrow, we will go to Crater Lake. Why is this an adverb clause? B/c it is describing a verb (will go) & it has a subject & verb (It does rain) NOTICE: When an adverb clause begins a sentence, it is followed by a comma.
An adverb clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction! Remember, we did these already! You have this sheet in your binder (in grammar section!) Example: If it does not rain tomorrow, we will go to Crater Lake. What’s the subordinating conjunction in that sentence? If
Definition of a Noun Clause: A dependent clause used as a noun. EXAMPLE: Three dollars was what Daniel offered for the trinket. This is a predicate nominative….A Noun Clause can be used as Subject, Predicate Nominative, DO, or an IO, or as an Object of a Preposition. 3 Why can’t “three dollars” be the Noun Clause? Because that doesn’t have a subject & verb and a clause has to have both!
Participation is the Key! Let’s Try Some! Identify the Dependent Clause & tell what type it is. 1. My friend found the CD that my sister bought me for my birthday. Dep. Clause: that my sister bought me for my birthday Type: Because it is describing CD, which is a noun Adjective Clause Why? 2. He skateboarded the jump as if he were an expert. Dep. Clause: as if he were an expert Type: Adverb Clause Why? Because it is describing how he skateboarded
Practice Continued… 3. Did anyone ask her what sort of present she would like for her birthday? Dep. Clause: what sort of present she would like for her birthday Type: Noun Clause Why? Because it is acting as a direct object in the sentence. 4. Whoever wins the student council election will have a great deal of responsibility. Dep. Clause: whoever wins the student council election Because it is acting as the subject in the sentence. Type: Noun Clause Why?
Some More Practice… 5. I can’tfind my softball and my glove my cousin lent me. Dep. Clause: my cousin lent me Type: Adjective Clause Why? Because it is describing softball & glove, which are nouns 6. If you ever wanted to step into the past, you’ll like this museum. Dep. Clause: If you ever wanted to step into the past Type: Adverb Clause Why? Because it is describing what you’ll like, which is a verb
Let's Review *What is a clause? *What is an independent clause? *What is a dependent clause? *How many types of dependent clauses are there?
Review Continued... *What are the 3 types of dependent clauses? *What is a noun clause? *What is an adjective clause? *What is an adverb clause?