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Clauses PowerPoint Presentation

Clauses

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Clauses

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  1. Clauses • A clause contains the basic units of a subject(S) and a main verb (V). e.g. The sunshines. S V Hewrote me a letter. S V

  2. Six common clausal/sentence patterns (1) The cat jumps. S V (2) A dog is chasing a cat. S V Obj (3) The girl isbeautiful. S Vadj (4) Wemadehimsuccessful. S V Objadj (5) Igavehima ied present. S VObjObj (6) Heruns fast. S VAdv

  3. Two Types of Clauses There are two main types of clause structures: independent clauses and dependent clauses.

  4. Independent Clauses Independent Clause: a clause (containing a subject and verb) that can stand alone and express a complete thought. An independent clause is also a sentence. e.g. They got married last year. He is a professor at UNJA. I wrote a letter to him.

  5. Dependent Clauses When a clause needs to attach itself to an independent clause (sentence) to complete its meaning, it is called a dependent clause. A dependent clause can not stand alone, or it becomes a sentence fragment. e.g. When you are free, please come to see me. If you want to come, you can come. Because he was ill, he couldn’t come to class yesterday.

  6. Practice Read the following passage and identify the clauses in it. Decide whether each one is a dependent clause or an independent clause. (1) In the past, most of the studies on the impact of chemicals on human reproduction were focused on women during pregnancy. (2) Now we realize that these toxic exposures to men and women may be just as important before they plan to have children, because the cells that are in their bodies, sperm forming tissues (men) and eggs (women), can be affected. (3) Also, during the early weeks of pregnancy before the mother realizes that she is pregnant, she can be seriously affected by certain chemicals.

  7. Answer to the practice 1. There is only one clause: In the past, most of the studies on the impact of chemicals on human reproductionwere focused onwomen during pregnancy (1 clause). SV 2. There are 5 clauses : Now werealize that these toxic exposures to men S V and womenmay bejust as importantbefore they S V S plan to have children, because the cellsthatare in VSS V their bodies, sperm forming tissues (men) and eggs (women), can be affected V

  8. Answers (continue) 3. There are 3 clauses : Also, during the early weeks of pregnancy before the motherrealizes S V that sheis pregnant, shecan be seriously affectedby certain chemicals SV SV

  9. Common Mistakes in Clausal Structures Error type 1. Verb in the clause is missing Our values today may much different from those in the past(I) Our values today may be much different from those in the past (C) 2. There are two main verbs in a clause The accidents happened recently in Singapore have confirmed our suspicions(I) The accidents that happened recently in Singapore S have confirmed our suspicions(C). V

  10. Common Mistakes (continue) 3. Dependent clause stands alone. There are a few strategies that I have found to be particularly effective for learning. One of which is revising your work. (I) There are a few strategies that I have found to be particularly effective for learning, one of which is revising your work. (C) 4. Two independent clauses separated by a comma. Information sent by email is safe, it is more likely to be received intact. (I) Information sent by email is safe; it is more likely to be received intact. (C) Information sent by email is safe. It is more likely to be received intact. (C) Information sent by email is safe as it is more likely to be received intact. (C)

  11. Practise to identify errors • The cultural differences we experienced in school. • Unlike primary or JC education system, in which the teachers prepare all the materials and do the tedious work. • The environment in university very much different from that of the secondary. • We must always ready to learn new things. • If the problem unsolvable, I should consult the lecturer. • An individual might get frustrated, angry and depressed whenever he/she facing those problems. • 9% of people suffered from depression will commit suicide. • There are thousands of students want to study in local institution.  

  12. Answers to the practise: • Thecultural differences we experienced in school help us gain a better understanding of other people’s beliefs. • Unlike primary or JC education system, in which the teachers prepare all the materials and do the tedious work, the university system emphasizes independent work. • The environment in university is very much different from that of the secondary. • We must always be ready to learn new things. • If the problem is unsolvable, I should consult the lecturer. • An individual might get frustrated, angry and depressed whenever he/she faces those problems. • 9% of people suffering (who suffer) from depression will commit suicide. • There are thousands of students who want to study in local institutions.  / Thousands of students want to study in local institutions.