Whatis a clause? A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb.
Whichthedifferencebetween a phrase and a clause? A clause is different from a phrase in that a phrase does not include a subject and a verb relationship.
Howmanytypes of clauses are there? Clauses come in differenttypes: Independent [ormain], Dependent[orSubordinate]
Whatisanindependentclause? • Main clauses has a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. • It is the only type of clause that can sand alone as a sentence. • Conjunction cannot be include in your clauses. • Everymainclausewillfollowthispattern: • subject + verb= complete thought. • Examples : • Lazystudentswhine.Students = subject; whine = verb. • My dogloves pizza crusts.Dog = subject; loves = verb.
Whatis a dependentclause? • It has a subject and a predicate, but DOES NOT express a complete thought. • Itcannot stand alone as a sentence. A subordinateclausewillfollowthispattern:subordinateconjunction+subject+verb = incompletethought.Examples:Wheneverlazystudentswhine. Whenever= subordinateconjunction; students = subject; whine = verb.Because my dogloves pizza crusts. Because = subordinateconjunction; dog = subject; loves = verb.
Howmanydependentclauses are there? There are 3 types of dependent clauses: Adjectives clause Adverb clause Noun clauses.
Adjectives clauses: • Modifies (describes) a noun or a pronoun. • May begin with a relative pronoun ( Who, whom, whose, that and which) or a relative adverb (when, where, orwhy) • Normally follows the word it modifies. Anadjetctiveclausewillfollowthispattern:relativepronounoradverb + subject +verb= incompletethought Examples: Whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalkeraser. Whom = relativepronoun; Mrs. Russell = subject; hit = verb. Where he chews and droolswithgreatenthusiasm. Where= relativeadverb; he = subject; chews, drools = verbs.
There are two types of adjectives:essentialornonessential • a) Adjective essential: • Isnecessary to make the meaning of a sentence clear. • It must not be set off by commas.. • Example: • A dogthateatstoomuch pizzawillsoondeveloppepperonibreath. • b) Adjective nonessential: • Isnotnecessary to make the meaning of a sentence clear. • Always use commas to set off a nonessential clause. • Example: • My dog Floyd, whoeatstoomuch pizza, has developedpepperonibreath.
What is an Adverb Clause? • A group of words which contains a subject and a finite verb that describes or adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective and another adverb.
2. Adverb clauses: • Modifies (describes) a verb, and adjective or an adverb. • It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions. • Examples: • Before I took the test, I studied for a long hour. • While walking, she listens to the radio. • 3. Nouns clauses: • Is used as a noun within the main clause of a sentence. • You can use a noun clause as a subject, a direct and indirect object, an object of a preposition or a predicate nominate. • Example: • Youreally do notwanttoknowwhatAunt Nancy addstoherstew.
Adverb Clause can be divided into: • Result • Purpose • Place • Manner • Time • Reason • Concession • Contrast
1. Adverb Clause of Time • These clauses are introduced by when, when, whenever,while, as, before, after, till, until, since and as soon as,
Examples: • When he arrives, he will tell us the truth. • Mary was dancing while John was singing. • The train left as we arrived.
I will stay with you until your mother comes home. • After he had got the money, he left home immediately. (For more examples, pls. refer to the grammar notes.)
2. Adverb Clause of Reason • These clauses are introduced by because,since, for and as, etc.
Examples: • I was late becauseI could not catch the bus. • Since I was late, I took a taxi. • The manager dismissed Mary, for she was very lazy. • As the weather was bad, we cancelled the picnic.
3. Adverb Clause of Concession These clauses are introduced by though,although, even though, no matter how , no matterwhat and as, etc.
Examples: • Although he is small, he is very strong. • No matter how smart they are, they are required to do the revision. • No matter what the doctor did, the girl was still dead.
4. Adverb Clause of Contrast • These clauses are introduced by whereas and while • Examples: • We took the train whereas Pete drove. • While Tom is a good math student, Pam does well in English.
5. Adverb Clause of Result These clauses are always linked with so that, so + adj. /adv. + that and such + a + noun + that, etc.
Examples: • Tom wasso weak that he could not run. • It was such a strange story that no one believed it.
6. Adverb Clause of Purpose These clauses are always linked with so that, in order that, for fear that, in case, etc.
He arrived earlier, so that he would not be late. • They brought a lot of food for fear that they would be hungry during the trip. • She brought the credit card in case she did not have enough cash.
7. Adverb Clause of Place These clauses are introduced by where and wherever. • Nobody knows where he has been to. • He travels wherever he likes.
8. Adverb Clause of Manner These clauses are introduced by as, as if and as though. • Please do as I have told you. • * He cries as if he were mad. • * He speaks as though he were the boss. • * The subjunctive is used after as if and as though.
What is a relative clause? • A relative clause, also called an adjective clause, modifies a noun. A relative clause can modify any noun in the sentence: a subject, an object, or an object of a preposition. • A relative clause begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, that, where, when, why). • Sometimes the pronoun can be omitted. We will examine these cases later in the lesson. • Sometimes commas are required. We will examine these cases later in the lesson.
Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as subjects • A relative pronoun can be the subject of the relative clause. • The politician is extremely happy. • She won by a landslide. • The politician who won by a landslide is extremely happy. • This relative clause modifies the subject of the main clause.
Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as subjects • I saw the driver of the blue van. • He caused the accident. • I saw the driver of the blue van, who caused the accident. • This relative clause modifies the object of the main clause. • When the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause, use who, which, or that as the pronoun. • When the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause, it cannot be omitted.
Forming relative clauses:relative pronouns as objects • A relative pronoun can be the object of the relative clause. • The seafood wasn’t very good. • We ate the seafood last night. • The seafood that we ate last night wasn’t very good. • This relative clause modifies the subject of the main clause.
Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as objects of prepositions • A relative pronoun can be the object of a preposition in the relative clause. • The movie won an Academy Award. • I was talking to you about the movie. • The movie I was talking to you about won an Academy Award. or • The movie about which (that) I was talking to you (about) won an Academy Award. • This relative clause modifies the subject of the sentence.
Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as objects of prepositions • Last Tuesday, Jamie ran into an old friend. • She had gone to college with her. • Last Tuesday, Jamie ran into an old friend with whom she had gone to college. or • Last Tuesday, Jamie ran into an old friend she had gone to college with. • This relative clause modifies the object of the main clause.
Forming relative clauses: relative pronouns as objects of prepositions • When the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition in the relative clause, you have several choices: • begin the clause with the preposition + whom/which • begin the clause with who, whom, which, or that, and put the preposition at the end of the clause • omit the pronoun and put the preposition at the end of the clause.
Summary of relative pronouns as subjects, objects, and objects of prepositions
Essential and nonessential relative clauses • An essential relative clause limits the meaning of the noun it modifies. It identifies or defines that noun in some way. • The man who is standing over there is a famous actor. • Which man? • The man who is standing over there.
Restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses • A non-essential relative clause gives additional or extra information that is not needed to identify the noun. • Mr. Stevens, who is standing over there, is the mayor of our town.
Restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses – pronoun use • Do not use the pronoun that in a non-essential relative clause. Use who or which instead. • X Mars, that is the fourth planet from the sun, is smaller than Earth. • Mars, which is the fourth planet from the sun, is smaller than Earth.
Restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses – comma use. • Use commas to isolate non-essential relative clauses. Do not use commas with essential relative clause. • Mars, which is the fourth planet from the sun, is smaller than earth. • The planet that has the largest rings is Saturn.
Beyond the basics – clauses of time, place & reason • When, where, and why can introduce relative clauses after nouns referring to time, place, and reason, as in these examples: • They are used in the same way as preposition + which. • Do you see a bench where (on which)we can sit down? • July 4, 1776 is the day when (on which) the Declaration of Independence was signed. • Do you know the reason why (for which) I joined the team?
Beyond the basics – modifying a clause • Relative clauses beginning with which can modify a clause, not just a noun. Use commas. • He always comes late, which really annoys me.
Beyond the basics – expressions of quantity • Relative clauses may contain an expression of quantity with of (e.g. some of, many of). • Use whom, which, and whose in with expressions of quantity. • Use commas. • The article contained a number of errors, most of which the editor was able to catch. • He has three brothers, none of whom have been as successful as he has. • We discussed the candidate, one of whose strengths was his experience working with computers.
Noun Clauses … • A noun clause is a subordinate clause that acts as a noun. • Usually start with a relative pronoun • Relative Pronouns: that, which, who, whom, whose • Acts like a noun or an adjective
More on Adverb Clauses and how these clauses function in sentences … Remember that adverb clauses modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs, or verbals (gerund, participial, and infinitive phrases) by telling where, when, in what way, to what extent, under what condition, or why.