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  1. Clauses Chapter 13

  2. Clause • A clause is a group of words that contains a verb and its subject. • It is used as part of a sentence or a complete sentence. • If it is part of a sentence, it depends on the rest of the sentence… making it a subordinate clause. • If it is a complete sentence, it is an independent clause.

  3. Independent Clauses • An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. • Examples: • Jennifer practices soccer every day. • Her team won yesterday’s game. • When an independent clause stands alone, it is called a sentence. They are usually called independent clauses when it is joined with another clause. • Examples: • After Kevin completed his homework and fed the dogs, he played some video games. • Linda ate some fruit while she did her homework.

  4. Subordinate Clauses • A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. • Examples: • If you finish on time • Which we found on the sidewalk • That Dad cooked for us • Added to a sentence, a subordinate clause adds details. • Examples: • We all enjoyed the dinner that dad cooked for us. • If you finish on time, we will go to the movies as planned. • The wallet which we found on the sidewalk belonged to Mr. Jones.

  5. Words often used to begin subordinate clauses

  6. Independent VS Subordinate • While Dad was sleeping, we decorated the house for the surprise party. • Just as Terri came in the door, the phone rang. • Before you accept the invitation, ask your mother. • Somalis, who traditionally raise and export livestock, are nomadic. • Do you know when the train should arrive? • Although he was better at social studies, he loved art. • Two uniformed soldiers guarded the entrance where an iron gate stood. • When the snow melts, these streams will fill and rush down to the valley. • The art paper that you are using really soaks up ink. • Toni Morrison, whose parents were once sharecroppers, won the Pulitzer Prize.

  7. Adjective Clauses • An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. Remember that a subordinate clause has a subject and a verb but it cannot stand alone as a complete thought. • These clauses will * most likely* begin with our relative pronouns… that, which, who, whom, or whose. • They will answer the questions Which one? or What kind? • Be careful when identifying adjective clauses… do not get them confused with adjectives or adjective phrases. • Examples: • Adjective: a white cat • Adjective phrase: a cat with white fur • Adjective clause: a cat that has white fur (this clause has a subject – that and a verb- has)

  8. Finding Adjective Clauses • Jadee, whose aunt once rode on the space shuttle, is visiting her this summer. • Grandfather gave me that arrowhead, which has been in our family for generations. • The doctor looked at the notes that the nurse had written. • What was the name of the man who helped us? • Panama hats, which are prized far and wide, are woven of jipijapa leaves. • We could not have done it without Harry, whose skill saved the day. • Have you heard of Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz, the Mexican nun who championed women’s rights in 1691? • Argentina’s pampas, where fine herds of cattle graze, offer ranchers rich and vast grasslands. • Since ancient times, Asian ginger has been prized for the tang that it gives many dishes. • Ric, whom Doris calls “The Prince,” is always a good sport.

  9. Adverb Clauses • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Remember that a subordinate clause has a subject and a verb but it cannot stand alone as a complete thought. • They will answer the following questions: How? When? Where? Why? To what extent? How much? How long? or Under what conditions? • Be careful when identifying adverb clauses… do not get them confused with adverbs or adverb phrases. • Examples: • Adverb: Shyly, the toddler hid behind his mother. • Adverb phrase: With a shy smile, the toddler hid behind his mother. • Adverb clause: Since the child was shy, she hid behind her mother. (this clause has a subject – toddler and a verb- was)

  10. Finding Adverb Clauses • Tiny wildflowers sprang up wherever they could. • Unless you want to sink, do not pull that large plug at the bottom of the boat. • Wind blew softly across the sand dunes while the caravan made its way home. • As soon as the cows come in, they must be fed. • To our surprise, when we entered the woods, a dozen armadillos were foraging right in front of us. • Although the piano had not been used for some time, it was still in tune. • Unless the shipment arrives today, the order will not be ready on time. • Because the airplane had been painted yellow, it was easily seen from the ground. • I’m not going if you’re not going. • I had never heard anyone sing as he did.

  11. Independent VS Subordinate ANDAdjective VS Adverb • Camels stamped and bellowed in annoyance when packs were put on them. • Aloe plants, which originated in Africa, are now widely available in the United States. • As far as scientists can tell, there is no connection between these two events. • If you adjust the blinds, you won’t have that glare on your monitor. • The castanets, which were quite old, had been Melanie’s grandmother’s. • You were always singing when you were little. • Three Indian elephants patiently towed two logs that had just been cut. • Stay with us as long as you want. • Southeast Asia depends heavily on the seasonal rain that the monsoons bring. • The Forbidden City, where China’s emperors lived, is enclosed by walls.