clauses n.
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  1. Clauses Clause: a group of words that contain a subject and a predicate and is used as part of a sentence

  2. Phrase vs. Clause • Phrases do not contain both a subject and its verb. • Clauses do contain both a subject and its verb, but still function as part of a sentence.

  3. Clauses • Every clause has both a subject and a verb, however, not every clause expresses a complete thought. • Example: • Sentence: A sitar is an Indian stringed instrument that resembles a lute. • Clause 1: A sitar is an Indian stringed instrument • [expresses a complete thought = Independent Clause] • Clause II: that resembles a lute • [contains both a subject and a verb, but does not complete a complete thought = Subordinate Clause]

  4. The Independent Clause • Independent Clause: expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. • Note: By itself, an independent clause is simply called a sentence. It is called an independent clause only when it is combined with at least one other clause (subordinate or independent) to form a sentence. • Examples: • Mexican artist Jose Guadalupe Posada opposed the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz. [one independent clause…a sentence] • Posadaattacked the Diaz regime in his paintings, and hemade thousands of inexpensive prints of his work. [two independent clauses joined by and] • Posada’s arthelped to stir the social unrestthat led to the overthrow of Diaz in the revolution of 1910. [an independent clause combined with a subordinate clause]

  5. The Subordinate Clause • Subordinate Clause: a clause that does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence. • The meaning of a subordinate clause becomes clear only when the clause is combined with an independent clause. • Examples: • Whoeverknows the song may join in. • We sang “We Shall Overcome,” whichis my favorite song. [Notice which is a relative pronoun, introducing a subordinate clause.] • As wewere singing, we joined hands and formed a circle. [Notice singing is a gerund, being used as a noun. Singing is the main verb in the compound verb were singing.]

  6. The Adjective Clause • Adjective Clause: a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. • An adjective clause always follows the word or words it modifies and tells which kind or which one. • Examples: • The report that Sally wrote was on the Battle of Little Big Horn. [The adjective clause modifies the noun report.] • Why is this example a clause and not a phrase? • The Cuban Cultural Heritage Walk, which is located in Hialeah, Florida, honors Cuban artists in exile. [The adjective clause modifies the compound noun Cuban Heritage Walk.] • Note: This is a subjective clause (an adjective clause) introduced by a relative pronoun.

  7. Relative Pronouns and Relative adverbs • An adjective clause usually begins with a relative pronoun. • Relative Pronouns: that which who whom whose • Examples: • Mr. Mendoza is a good counselor who never betrays a confidence. • Have you practiced the speech that you will give on Friday? • An adjective clause may also begin with a relative adverb. • Relative Adverbs: when where • Examples: • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., dreamed of the day when freedom and justice would reign in the United States. • The site where Dr. King delivered his great “I Have a Dream speech in 1963 was the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

  8. The Noun Clause • Noun Clause: a subordinate clause used as a noun • A noun clause may be used as a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition. • Common Introductory words for Noun Clauses: • That, what, whatever, how, if, when, which, whichever, who, whenever, where, wherever, whoever, whom, whomever, whether, why • Examples: • How students apply for college loans was the speaker’s topic. [subject] • My suggestion is that we all meet again tomorrow. [predicate nominative] • Many modern historians question whether Columbus was truly the first European to explore the Americas. [direct object] • Mrs. Romero offers whoever completes additional assignments extra credit. [Indirect object] • Write about whomever you admire most. [object of a preposition]

  9. The Adverb Clause • Adverb Clause: a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. • An adverb clause tells how, how much, when, where, why, to what extent, or under what conditions. • Adverb clauses are introduced by a subordinating conjunction. • Common subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, provided that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while

  10. Adverb Clause • Examples • You look as though you have a lot on your mind. • What word is being modified by this clause? What part of speech is that word? What question does it answer? • Many Western artists were influenced by the Asian art they saw while they were studying in Paris. • Dalia likes classical music better than I do.