Clauses Clause: a group of words that contain a subject and a predicate and is used as part of a sentence
Phrase vs. Clause • Phrases do not contain both a subject and its verb. • Clauses do contain both a subject and its verb, but still function as part of a sentence.
Clauses • Every clause has both a subject and a verb, however, not every clause expresses a complete thought. • Example: • Sentence: A sitar is an Indian stringed instrument that resembles a lute. • Clause 1: A sitar is an Indian stringed instrument • [expresses a complete thought = Independent Clause] • Clause II: that resembles a lute • [contains both a subject and a verb, but does not complete a complete thought = Subordinate Clause]
The Independent Clause • Independent Clause: expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. • Note: By itself, an independent clause is simply called a sentence. It is called an independent clause only when it is combined with at least one other clause (subordinate or independent) to form a sentence. • Examples: • Mexican artist Jose Guadalupe Posada opposed the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz. [one independent clause…a sentence] • Posadaattacked the Diaz regime in his paintings, and hemade thousands of inexpensive prints of his work. [two independent clauses joined by and] • Posada’s arthelped to stir the social unrestthat led to the overthrow of Diaz in the revolution of 1910. [an independent clause combined with a subordinate clause]
The Subordinate Clause • Subordinate Clause: a clause that does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence. • The meaning of a subordinate clause becomes clear only when the clause is combined with an independent clause. • Examples: • Whoeverknows the song may join in. • We sang “We Shall Overcome,” whichis my favorite song. [Notice which is a relative pronoun, introducing a subordinate clause.] • As wewere singing, we joined hands and formed a circle. [Notice singing is a gerund, being used as a noun. Singing is the main verb in the compound verb were singing.]
The Adjective Clause • Adjective Clause: a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. • An adjective clause always follows the word or words it modifies and tells which kind or which one. • Examples: • The report that Sally wrote was on the Battle of Little Big Horn. [The adjective clause modifies the noun report.] • Why is this example a clause and not a phrase? • The Cuban Cultural Heritage Walk, which is located in Hialeah, Florida, honors Cuban artists in exile. [The adjective clause modifies the compound noun Cuban Heritage Walk.] • Note: This is a subjective clause (an adjective clause) introduced by a relative pronoun.
Relative Pronouns and Relative adverbs • An adjective clause usually begins with a relative pronoun. • Relative Pronouns: that which who whom whose • Examples: • Mr. Mendoza is a good counselor who never betrays a confidence. • Have you practiced the speech that you will give on Friday? • An adjective clause may also begin with a relative adverb. • Relative Adverbs: when where • Examples: • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., dreamed of the day when freedom and justice would reign in the United States. • The site where Dr. King delivered his great “I Have a Dream speech in 1963 was the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
The Noun Clause • Noun Clause: a subordinate clause used as a noun • A noun clause may be used as a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition. • Common Introductory words for Noun Clauses: • That, what, whatever, how, if, when, which, whichever, who, whenever, where, wherever, whoever, whom, whomever, whether, why • Examples: • How students apply for college loans was the speaker’s topic. [subject] • My suggestion is that we all meet again tomorrow. [predicate nominative] • Many modern historians question whether Columbus was truly the first European to explore the Americas. [direct object] • Mrs. Romero offers whoever completes additional assignments extra credit. [Indirect object] • Write about whomever you admire most. [object of a preposition]
The Adverb Clause • Adverb Clause: a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. • An adverb clause tells how, how much, when, where, why, to what extent, or under what conditions. • Adverb clauses are introduced by a subordinating conjunction. • Common subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, provided that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while
Adverb Clause • Examples • You look as though you have a lot on your mind. • What word is being modified by this clause? What part of speech is that word? What question does it answer? • Many Western artists were influenced by the Asian art they saw while they were studying in Paris. • Dalia likes classical music better than I do.