CLAUSES Grammar, Yay!
Main Clauses • Clause – Group of words that has a subject and a predicate and that is used as part of a sentence. • Main clauses or independent clauses • Subordinate clauses or dependent clauses • Main Clause – has subject and predicate and can stand alone as a sentence • Stories entertain, and people listen Subject Verb Subject Verb
Subordinate Clauses • Has a subject and a predicate, but cannot stand alone. • Must be attached to a main clause • Many begin with subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns. • Stories entertain because they are amusing. • Stories that entertain amuse people Main Clause Main Clause Subordinate Clause Subject Subject Verb Verb Subordinate Clause
Subordinating Conjunctions • After • how • till ( or 'til) • although • if • unless • as • inasmuch • until • As • if • in order that • When • as long as lest • whenever • as much as • Now that • where • as soon as • provided (that) • wherever • as though • since • while • because • so that • before • than • even if • that Even though though
Relative Pronouns • Who • Whom • That • Which • whoever • whomever • whichever
Simple and Compound Sentences • Simple Sentence – Has one main clause and no sub. clauses • Stories entertain. • Stories and riddles entertain. • Stories and riddles entertain and amuse. • Stories about the Old West entertain adults and children alike. • Compound Sentence – two or more main clauses • Usually joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) • Semicolons may also be used. • Stories entertain, and riddles amuse. • Stories entertain, and riddles amuse, but poems delight. • Few wild animals live in China’s densely populated plains; in remoter areas, wildlife is abundant.
Complex and Compound Complex • Complex - has one main clause and one or more sub. Clauses • I like Toni Cade Bambara’s stories because they have real-life characters. • Compound-Complex – has two or more main clauses and at least one subordinate clause. • I read Frankenstein, which was written by Mary Shelley, and I wrote a report about it.
Sentence Fragments • Error that occurs when an incomplete sentence is punctuated as though it were a complete sentence. • Look for sentences lacking a subject! • Look for sentences lacking a predicate or verb! • Make sure you do not have a subordinate clause as a complete sentence.
Sentence Fragments • To correct: • Join it to a main clause that comes before or after the fragment • You may have to add words to complete the sentence. • Woodpeckers ate suet from my bird feeder last winter. Seemed to be particularly fond of it. • A large bird with blue feathers eating from the feeder for weeks. • I filled the feeder with sunflower seeds. Which both the jays and the cardinals seem to like.
Run-ons • Two or more complete sentences put together as though they were one complete sentence • Tanya and Naoko are both going to work as a camp counselors this summer, they are looking forward to the experience.