clauses n.
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  1. Clauses Elizabeth Navedo Arbeláez S00069808 Contrastive Analysis of English and Spanish ENGL 360 Professor: Dr. Evelyn Lugo Morales

  2. What is a clause? • A clause is a group of related words that contain a subject and a verb. • It is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence. • Words and phrases can be put together to make clauses. • Example: where are you now • V S • after we won the game • S V • Not every clause expresses a complete thought. • Example: A sitar is a stringed instrument that resembles a lute. • Clause A sitar is a stringed instrument. (complete thought) • Clause that resembles a lute (incomplete thought)

  3. Independent and Dependent clauses • An Independent or main clause is a group of words that contain a subject, a predicate, and expresses a complete thought, it stands by itself as a sentence. • Example: The message that was inscribed on the stone was not very exciting. • A Dependent or Subordinate clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate, but does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a sentence. • Example: The message that was inscribed on the stone was not very exciting.

  4. clauses • Adverbial clause is a dependent clause that acts like an adverb and indicates such things as time, place or reason: • Example: Although we are getting older, we grow more beautiful each day. • Noun clause is a clause that takes the place of a noun and cannot stand on its own; often introduced with words such as: how, if, that, what, whatever, when, whenever, wherever, where, whether, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, why. • Example: "What the president said was surprising” • Adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. It usually follows the word or words it modifies and tells what kind or which one. • Example: Amanda is someone whom I admire. • The adjective clause modifies the pronoun someone.

  5. relative clauses • Dependent clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not add extra information. • Usually starts with a relative pronoun such as who or which, or relative adverb such as where. • Example: "The person who finishes first can leave early" (defining), • "Texas, where my brother lives, is big" (non-defining) • … function as adjective equivalent which is essential to the meaning of the sentence. • … define nouns in order to distinguish similar persons or things in order to diminish ambiguity. • …. relate to known facts in order to explain something new.

  6. Relative clauses • A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative“ pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it modifies. • Example: “The person who phoned me last night is my teacher”. • In the above example, "who": relates to "person", which it modifies. It introduces • the relative clause "who phoned me last night" • There are five relative pronouns in English: who, whom, whose, which, that. • Who(subject) • Whom(object) are generally only for people. • Whoseis for possession. • Whichis for things. • Thatcan be used for people and things and as subject and object.

  7. Relative clauses • Relative adverb is an adverb that relates two sentences. • They replace the more formal structure of preposition + whichin a relative clause. • A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand. • There are four in English: where, when, wherever, whenever • Example: That's the restaurant wherewe met for the first time. (where = at/in which) • I remember the day when we first met. (when = on which) • There was a very hot summer the year when he was born. (when = in which) • Tell me (the reason) why you were late home. (why = for which, but could replace the whole phrase 'the • reason for which')

  8. Relative clauses • Non-defining relative clauses are also called "non-restrictive relative clauses” is a relative clause that adds information but is not completely necessary; set off from the sentence with a comma or commas. • Example: "The boy, who had a chocolate bar in his hand, was still hungry” • Reduced relative clause also called "participial relative clause“ is a construction similar to a relative clause, but containing a participle instead of a finite verb; this construction is possible only under certain circumstances. • Example: "The woman sitting on the bench is my sister", • "The people arrested by the police have been released"

  9. Fragment and phrases • Fragment is an incomplete piece of a sentence used alone as a complete sentence; a fragment does not contain a complete thought; fragments are common in normal speech but unusual (inappropriate) in formal writing. • Example: "When's her birthday? - In December", "Will they come? – Probably not" • Phrase is two or more words that have a single function and form part of a sentence; phrases can be noun, adjective, adverb, verb, or prepositional.A phrase is a group of related words that do not express a complete thought and do not have a subject and predicate pair. • Example: leaving behind the dog • smashing into a fence

  10. references • Warriner, J.E., (2008). Grammar-Usage-Mechanics-Sentences. Holt • Traditions Sixth Course. Austin, TX: Harcourt Education Company • • • • • •