Sexually Transmitted Infections PDCP GRADE 10
What is an STI?? • An STI is a sexually transmitted infection that is contracted through unprotected sex. • Unprotected includes oral sex as well as intercourse.
Need to realize that… • You can contract some STI’s more than once and you can have more than one STI at a time. • STI’s can become very dangerous if ignored.
How is it Transmitted? • Germs cause STI’s. These include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. • Germs require certain things in order to grow and multiply. • Things that include warmth, darkness, moisture, mucous lining, and a good blood supply.
Types of STI’S Parasitic STI • Pubic Lice (Crabs) Bacterial STIs • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea • Syphilis Viral STIs • Herpes • AIDS/HIV • HPV (genital warts)
What are pubic lice? • Tiny crab-like insects that nest in pubic hair. They bury their heads into the skin and live off human blood, laying their egg sacks (nits) near the base of the pubic hairs.
A substance they secrete into the skin can cause intense itching, and the bites of adult lice turn small patches of skin to a bluish-grey colour. • Unlike head lice, pubic lice have small, wide bodies and arms that resemble crabs. These lice can also be found in chest, armpit and facial hair, eyebrows and eyelashes.
How do crabs/lice spread? • Pubic lice can be spread during intimate contact. • They do this by crawling from one person to another, since they have no wings. • Pubic lice also can live for one to two days in bedding, towels and clothing belonging to an infected individual, and these items can be a source of transmission. • It is most common among sexually active people and in situations where individuals are in close contact.
Symptoms • Skin irritation and inflammation accompanied by itchiness and redness. • Small blue spots on the skin where lice have bitten. • Louse feces: fine black particles, in the infected person’s undergarments.
Treatment • Non-prescription shampoo that can be purchased at a pharmacy, clinic or doctor’s office. Usually one wash is all it takes. • A fine-toothed comb or the fingernails can be used to scrape the eggs off the hairs. • Clothes, bedding, and other possible contaminated items should be washed in hot water or dry cleaned, or bagged for a week. Items that cannot be washed or bagged should be vacuumed. • Shaving may not necessarily get rid of the problem. • **It will not go away on it’s own.
Chlamydia • Greatest number affected with Chlamydia are people 15-29 years old. Chlamydia rates rose 74% between 1997 and 2004. • Sometimes the symptoms are so mild that a person may not notice themwhich leads to more infections. • Symptoms may occur from 2 – 6 weeks after initial exposure.
Chlamydia: What to look for Females: -a new or different discharge from the vagina -a burning feeling when urinating -pain in the lower abdomen - fever and chills -pain during sex -vaginal bleeding between periods -vaginal bleeding after intercourse
Chlamydia: What to look for Males: - a watery or milky drip from the penis -an itchy feeling inside the penis -a burning feeling when urinating -pain or swelling in the testicles - Infection of the anus
Testing • You will need to go to your doctor’s office and ask for testing to be done for Chlamydia. • Urine test conducted at your doctor’s office. • Also, a swab will be done on your throat, anus, penis or vagina.
Treatment • Chlamydia can be cured if treated with an antibiotic taken by mouth. • Unfortunately, the disease is often missed because it frequently presents no symptoms. • Effects if untreated: • Women: Sterility due to pelvic inflammatory disease. Passing the infection on to their child during childbirth. • Men: Infection of the urethra causing low sperm count and/or sterility.
Gonorrhea • Second most common STI in Canada, rates have doubled between 1997-2004. • 2/3 of reported cases in Canada are men. • Can affect the cervix, urethra, rectum, throat, and occasionally the eyes.
Gonorrhea • Symptoms, if any, include burning sensation during urination, and thick yellow discharge for both men/women. • Rectal/vaginal bleeding and pain are also symptoms. • It may take 2-21 days after sex to notice symptoms
Effects/Treatment • Individuals with gonorrhea are at an increased risk for contracting HIV. EFFECTS • Men & Women: Infertility & Infection in the bloodstream, joint & skin problems. TREATMENT • Multiple oral anti-biotics are available as there are several strains of gonorrhea requiring various treatments.
Syphilis • An infection sometimes called the great imitator because symptoms are similar to some common medical conditions. • Infectious in the first year after contraction. • This disease was rare in Canada, but is now becoming more common, with a definite increase in Atlantic Canada.(rose 904% between 1997-2004)
Testing and Treatment • A blood test or a swab of the infected area is used to determine if you are infected. • Syphilis can be cured with antibiotics but you are never immune.
3 Stages of Syphilis 1st Stage SIGNS & SYMPTOMS 3 days – 90 days after contracting • A chancre (sore or ulcer) will appear where the infection entered the body. • A chancre is firm, round and small. It is painless and my go unnoticed. • A chancre can heal without treatment, but the disease will still progress to stage 2.
3 Stages of Syphilis Stage 2 SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Develop 2 – 6 months after exposure. • The chancre may still be present or may be healed. • A rash may appear as rough, with reddish brown spots. • Other symptoms: fever, sore throat, patchy hair loss, weight loss, muscle or joint aches.
Épidémiologie de la Syphilis au NB Aspects cliniques et transmissibilité (suite…) CHEST TONGUE HAND BACK FOOT
3 Stages of Syphilis 3rd Stage • 2nd stage symptoms subside (go away). Disease can now damage organs like the heart, liver, brain, nerves, eyes, blood vessels, bones, and joints. • Over time, it can cause paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, dementia, and even death.
Before we discuss Herpes… Two types of Herpes: HSV1 & HSV2 HSV1 – Commonly referred to as cold sores. • Contagious, but is not contracted through sexual activity. HSV2 – Genital Herpes • Contagious, and is contracted through sexual activity. Can occur on the lips, mouth, genital or anal areas. • A person can be infected with both HSV1 & HSV2 at the same time.
Herpes • Herpes is a virus. • Many people who've been infected with HSV may never know they have the disease. • For some people – symptoms are very mild and go unnoticed. • For some people – symptoms are severe and painful.
Herpes – Signs and Symptoms • Pain or itching around your genital area, buttocks or inner thighs 2 - 20 days after exposure • Several days later-small red bumps appear • They blister and rupture, becoming ulcers that ooze or bleed. • 3-4 days later they form scabs that later heal THIS DOES NOT MEAN THE VIRUS IS GONE!!
How do genital herpes spread? • Direct skin to skin contact • Can spread to other parts of the body, including the eyes and from the mouth to the genitals during oral sex when one partner has cold sores.
Treatment • There is no cure! • There are antiviral medications (pills and ointment) available by prescription that will help reduce the number, duration and severity of the ulcers. • Medications can help with suppressing outbreaks and symptoms.