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World War II

World War II

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World War II

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  1. World War II

  2. World War Looms

  3. Dictators Around the World • Soviet Union: Joseph Stalin and Communism (where the government owns everything and provides healthcare, education, and welfare) • Italy: Benito Mussolini and fascism (the government owns business, but people have some power)

  4. Germany: Adolph Hitler and Nazism (similar to fascism, but added race superiority) • Japan: Militaristic government • Spain: Francisco Franco and Nationalism (extreme love for their nation)

  5. Soviet Union • Stalin followed in the footsteps of Vladimir Lenin; wanted Communism at any cost; became a police state • Moved to a Socialist nation in 1927—meaning no private enterprises (even farming); wanted a totalitarian government—one with complete control over its people • Issued three separate five-year plans to create an industrial power—was very successful • Executed tens of thousands during The Great Purge where people were branded enemies; responsible for the deaths of up to 13 million people

  6. Italy • Fascism had a strong, centralized government with a powerful dictator • Il Duce—the chief—gained control after marching on Rome with thousands of followers; controlled every aspect of Italian life • Did not control the farms and factories like Stalin—had support from many jobless youth, veterans, and business owners

  7. Germany • Joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (the Nazi Party) in 1919; rooted in extreme nationalism • Ideas • Unite all German speaking people • Felt Aryans were superior • National expansion—”to secure for the German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth” • Helped by the Great Depression—so many were out of work, they were desperate • Established the Third Reich—the Third German Empire

  8. Japan • Also wanted expanded living space for their growing population • Invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria and quickly gained control

  9. Spain • Francisco Franco led a fight with the Spanish Civil War • Assisted by Mussolini and Hitler • After 600,000 people had died and over $15 billion was spent to stop him, Franco controlled a totalitarian government

  10. League of Nations • Remember—the League of Nations was formed to help keep peace throughout the world after WWI • Japan was simply reprimanded for its invasion of Manchuria—so Japan simply withdrew from the League • Hitler began violating the Treaty of Versailles and Mussolini invaded Ethiopia

  11. The United States Response • Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts beginning in 1935 with a plan to keep the US out of war • In 1937, a poll showed 70% of Americans believed the US never should have entered WWI • FDR spoke out against isolationism in 1937 showing his desire to take action—the people protested and he backed off

  12. War in Europe • Hitler felt, “Germany’s problems can be solved only by means of force, and this is never without risk.” • Hitler met with Austria’s chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg in February 1938 and demanded Austrian Nazis enter the government; although von Schuschnigg changed his mind, German troops marched into Austria unopposed on March 12, 1938

  13. The Munich Pact • French premier Edouard Daladier and British prime minister Neville Chamberlain signed the agreement with Germany on September 30, 1938 • Said the Sudetenland (an area of Czechoslovakia with German speaking people) would be the last land acquired by Nazi Germany

  14. The German Offensive Begins • On March 15, 1939, “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist.” • Hitler said German-speaking people in Poland were also being mistreated; he signed a nonaggression pact with Soviet Union (and secretly agreed to divide Poland between them) • On September 1, 1939, Germany debuted its blitzkrieg or lightning war in which it attacked by surprise; the Soviet Union attacked from the east • Britain and France declared war and by the end of the month, WWII had begun although it was termed a sitzkrieg (a sitting war) because there was no fighting

  15. The Soviet Union Joins In • Stalin and the Soviet Union decided to take back lands lost after WWI ended • The Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania fell easily • Finland put up a strong battle, but fell after three months of fighting

  16. More German Movement • German newspapers reported, “Germany is ready” on April 7, 1940 • Germany invaded Denmark and Norway • Next, Hitler attacked the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg

  17. The Fall of France • German troops entered France from the northeast and successfully isolated British and French troops • Italy joined in and invade the southern part of France • On June 21, 1940, Hitler took control of France • French general Charles de Gaulle fled to Britain and set up a government-in-exile

  18. The Battle of Britain • The German air force, the Luftwaffe, made bombing runs over Britain for two solid months in the late summer of 1940 • 1000 German planes attacked British air fields, aircraft factories, and cities • Because the RAF (Britain’s Royal Air Force) used the new technology of radar and battled back bravely, Hitler called off the invasion indefinitely

  19. America Responds

  20. Roosevelt’s Feelings • Remember—he had been in favor of US involvement • He personally knew some of Hitler’s advisors and believed they were crazy • He convinced Congress to pass a new neutrality act that allowed “cash and carry”—meaning Britain and France could buy weapons and ammo and transport them on their own ships

  21. The Axis Powers • In September 1940, Japan, Germany, and Italy signed the Tripartite Pact—a mutual defense treaty • Roosevelt responded by increasing his assistance to France and Britain to avoid a two-ocean war

  22. America Continues Support • The US began boosting its defense spending • The Selective Training and Service Act was passed to register men between 21 and 35; 1 million were drafted to serve • The Lend-Lease Act was passed in 1941—the US would now “lend” arms to Britain

  23. Hitler Invades the Soviet Union • Invaded on June 22, 1941 • The Soviets fought bravely, but destroyed everything in the path when forced to retreat (scorched-earth policy) • Lasted over six months • Roosevelt began sending lend-lease supplies to the Soviet Union

  24. German Submarines • Also known as U-boats • Traveled in groups of 15-20, known as wolf packs • Was an effective mode of attack for the Germans • Roosevelt gave the Navy permission to protect lend-lease ships against German U-boats

  25. The Atlantic Charter • Declared both the US and Great Britain wanted • No extra land • To keep self-control • To let people choose their own government • Free trade • Cooperation • A secure peace • Permanent security • “A Declaration by the United Nations” was signed by 26 nations, including China and the Soviet Union

  26. U.S. Ships are Attacked • US destroyer Greer: torpedoes were fired at the ship on September 4, 1941 • The Pink Star—a US merchant ship: sunk two weeks later • US destroyer Kearny: torpedoed in mid-October • US destroyer Reuban James: sunk in October; killed at least 100 sailors

  27. Japan • Dreamed of a vast colonial empire • They’d invaded Manchuria in 1931 and China in 1937 • Pushed south in July 1941 towards present-day Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos • Hideki Tojo became Prime Minister and planned to attack the United States • The US intercepted Japan’s secret communication codes and knew an attack was coming

  28. The Attack on Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941: 181 Japanese planes bombed Pearl Harbor for an hour and a half • The attack crippled the US Pacific Fleet • 18 ships were sunk or damaged; 350 planes were destroyed or severely damaged; 2400 people had died; and 1178 were injured

  29. Response to Pearl Harbor • Roosevelt said, “December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy.” • Burton Wheeler, an isolationist senator, said, “The only thing now to do is to lick the hell out of them.” • The US declared war on Japan on 12/8 • Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the US

  30. The Holocaust

  31. Hitler’s Plan • To promote the Aryan race • In April 1933, he removed all non-Aryans from government jobs • Jews had traditionally been the scapegoats for Germans—blamed for any failures or economic problems • In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of their civil rights and property and forced Jews to wear a yellow star of David • The Laws

  32. Nuremberg Chart

  33. Kristallnacht • November 9, 1938—the night of broken glass • Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues throughout Germany were attacked • More than 20,000 Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps

  34. Jewish Refugees • In 1938, Germany’s foreign minister observed: “We all want to get rid of our Jews. The difficulty is that no country wishes to receive them.” • 40,000 fled to France • England accepted 500 refugees a week • 60,000 travelled to the United States which had strict immigration quotas • Most people were anti-Semitic and didn’t want the Jews either.

  35. Hitler’s Final Solution • Since many Jews were unable to flee Germany, Hitler came up with a new plan • Healthy Jews would be sent to labor camps to perform slave labor • The rest would be sent to extermination camps—this resulted in genocide, the deliberate killing of an entire people • The Nazis also included others they felt were inferior or unworthy: gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, the mentally retarded, the insane, the disabled, and the incurably ill • Eventually, they added the Poles, Ukrainians, and Russians to their list

  36. Concentration Camps • Prisoners would work from dawn to dusk, seven days a week, until they collapsed • They lived in cramped wooden barracks that held up to 1000 people each • Food was meager—mostly a thin soup with an occasional scrap of bread

  37. Concentration Camp Pictures

  38. Extermination • Because the Jews wouldn’t die fast enough in the work camps, the Nazis built six death camps in Poland—the main purpose was to exterminate or kill people • Each had gas chambers to kill up to 6000 people daily • Bodies were initially buried in huge pits, but crematoriums worked more quickly to dispose of the bodies • Others died by being shot, hanged, poisoned, or experimented on

  39. The United States in WWII

  40. Americans Get Involved • The Japanese had assumed Americans would be too afraid to respond to the attack on Pearl Harbor • 5 million volunteered to serve, but it wasn’t enough • The selective service draft provided another 10 million soldiers

  41. Women in the Military • General George Marshall pushed for the formation of a Women’s Auxiliary Army corps (WAAC) because of the shortage of male soldiers • Over 250,000 women served the United States during WWII

  42. Minorities in the Armed Services • Segregated units were the norm • Despite the prejudice in their daily lives, many volunteered to fight for the country they felt ignored their struggles • Over 1.5 million minorities served in WWII

  43. On the Home Front • Auto production shut down to switch to tanks, planes, boats, and command cars • All industries mobilized for the war effort • Women and minorities had opportunities never before available

  44. Roosevelt Creates the OSRD • The Office of Scientific Research and Development • Improved radar and sonar • Encouraged the use of DDT to keep the soldiers bug and lice free • Pushed the development of miracle drugs like penicillin • Secretly developed the atomic bomb • Refugee Albert Einstein warned Roosevelt to be careful or the Germans would develop this also

  45. Japanese Internment Camps • Over 100,000 Japanese Americans were shipped to ten camps, most American born, as a result of Roosevelt’s order on February 19, 1942 • Panic and prejudice created an atmosphere of hysteria and hostility

  46. Internment—Executive Order 9066 • Included those who were only part Japanese and most were American citizens • Camps didn’t always contain cooking or plumbing facilities • Were under guard by the US Army • The Japanese lost all they owned—their homes, businesses, pictures, furniture—they lost their lives

  47. Economic Concerns • Roosevelt didn’t want inflation to skyrocket as it had during WWI • The OPA (Office of Price Administration) froze the prices of most goods and raised income tax • The WPB (War Production Board) collected goods to recycle for the war effort • Everyone could only have a certain amount of items—through rationing • Included meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gasoline

  48. Britain and the U.S. Join Forces Winston Churchill (Prime Minister of England) visited the US in late December 1941 to plan out their war policy • Decisions: • The main priority was to defeat Germany • They agreed to only accept the unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers

  49. Battle of the Atlantic German U-boats were able to sink 681 Allied ships throughout the Atlantic in the first half of 1942 The Allies responded by organizing convoys guarded by destroyers and were able to have success The US also increased its ship production

  50. The Battle of Stalingrad The Germans had stalled their attempts to invade the Soviet Union, but began again in search of oil The Luftwaffe ran nightly bombing raids on the city For over six months, the German and Soviet soldiers fought brutally in freezing conditions Over 225,000 Germans died and the Soviets lost 1,250,000 soldiers and civilians