Water (and calories)

# Water (and calories)

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## Water (and calories)

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1. Water (and calories) Dr. Thomas J. Montville

2. (Note change of topic order) DVD on Calories Dr. Thomas J. Montville

3. Experiential Exposition of Calorie Dr. Thomas J. Montville

4. Dr. Thomas J. Montville

5. Energy and Engineering Properties • calorie = amt of Energy required to raise 1 gram H20 1°C • Calorie (kcal) = amt of Energy required to raise 1 liter H20 1C ° ~ 1 quart of water by 0.5 ° F (1 C° = 5/9 F°) Dr. Thomas J. Montville

6. More on Calories How many Calories does an ounce of water have? Dr. Thomas J. Montville

7. More on Calories How many Calories does an ounce of water have? None Dr. Thomas J. Montville

8. More on Calories What about steam? It has energy? Steam stores or transfers energy. Dr. Thomas J. Montville

9. Consider the ice water diet • How much ice water would you have to drink to lose 1 pound? • How many Calories would it take to raise 1 liter of water from 0 to 37 C? • 37 Calories to raise 1 liter (~quart), 3500 C/pound  37 C per qt. = 94 quarts or ~ 24 gal Dr. Thomas J. Montville

10. Consider sweat Energy of vaporization = 540 Calories to evaporate a liter of sweat Dr. Thomas J. Montville

11. “Hydrate, Urinate, Celebrate” If a cyclist expends 540 calories/hour riding a bike, how much fluid should he be drinking? If his urine is dark and only 100 ml/hr, what does that mean? Why is sweat good? Danger of Hyponatremia Dr. Thomas J. Montville

12. “Energy” Drinks Dr. Thomas J. Montville

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14. Questions? Comments? Dr. Thomas J. Montville

15. Water Friend or Foe? Water, Friend or Foe? Dr. Thomas J. Montville

16. Water,an amazing molecule and our first chemical (ingredient) Uses in food Chemistry Physical properties Water in foods Water in nutrition http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobooktoc.html Dr. Thomas J. Montville

17. Uses of water in food • Solvent • Carrier – (Lakes, emulsion) • Force – (Cleaning) • Product • Adulterant • Preserve Freshness • Texture - (Juiciness) Dr. Thomas J. Montville

18. “Water added” Dr. Thomas J. Montville

19. More uses of water in food • Appearance • Heat sink – see next • Chemical reactant and product • Emulsion • Structure • Energy (microwave heating)  • http://www.koreus.com/video/telephone-portable-mais-popcorn.html 14. Agriculture Dr. Thomas J. Montville

20. Heat Sink due to Specific Heat • Specific Heat = amount of energy required to raise 1 gram of water 1°C. • The specific heat of water = 1 • Specific heat of air = 0.25 Dr. Thomas J. Montville

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25. Water Chemistry “Hydrogen bonding” is nothing more than the attraction of positive and negative. Dr. Thomas J. Montville

26. Hydrogen bonding  Physical Properties Energy Hydrogen bonds are relatively weak. Dr. Thomas J. Montville

27. Boling Point vs. Altitude (Vacuum) Freeze Drier Low altitude Low melting point Low boiling point High altitude High boiling point Dr. Thomas J. Montville

28. Boling point vs. Altitude Dr. Thomas J. Montville

29. Three phases of water Venus GAS Look at different planets. Where’s earth? Temperature Liquid Mars Solid Earth Pressure Dr. Thomas J. Montville

30. Three phases of water Venus GAS Where’s Uranus? Temperature Liquid Mars Solid Pressure Dr. Thomas J. Montville

31. Three phases of water Venus GAS Where’s Uranus? Temperature Due to high atmospheric pressure and large gravitational force, water exists only as solid. Liquid Mars Solid Pressure Dr. Thomas J. Montville

32. Vapor Dr. Thomas J. Montville

33. Vapor Energy of fusion = 80 Calories/liter ? to 32 F 32 F 32-212 212 - ? Energy of vaporization = 540 Calories/liter Dr. Thomas J. Montville

34. Three phases Low freezing point High boiling point High heat capacity Polarity Low density Expands when frozen Ability to conduct heat” ice 4x faster than water, 4x faster than air. (Ice melts faster than water freezes.) Physical Properties of Water Dr. Thomas J. Montville

35. Water in Food, Three types • Constitutive water • < 0.3% in high water food • Immobile, unfreezable • Multilayer water • 0.5 – 3% • Some solvent capacity • Bulk water • 96%, free & entrapped, reactive, freezeable, Dr. Thomas J. Montville

36. Water activity concept Salad dressing and honey are both ~ 50% water, but the availability of the water is different. Dr. Thomas J. Montville

37. Essential to life Chemical Carrier of water soluble vitamins Incompressible Amniotic fluid Temperature regulation Need 1 g / cal expended Substance % H20 You 65 Beef & pork 60 Chicken 75 “hard” fruit 80-90 “soft” fruit 90-95 Water and Nutrition Dr. Thomas J. Montville

38. Dr. Thomas J. Montville