World War II Clockwise from top: Allied landing on Normandy beaches on D-Day, the gate of a Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz, Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag over the Reichstag in Berlin, the Nagasaki atom bomb, and a Nazi parade in 1939. Chapter 11
The Versailles Treaty • Land. • Reparations. • War guilt. • League of Nations.
The Versailles Treaty (continued) • German army reduced • Germany barred from having tanks, an air force, or submarines • Occupied DMZ west of the Rhineland Map showing German territory lost and the Rhineland DMZ, 1919.
ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS U.S.A. U.S.S.R. England Germany Italy Japan Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt V.I. Lenin Prime Minister, Winston Churchill (1940) Prime Minister, Hideki Tojo (1941-48) Chancellor Adolf Hitler, Fϋhrer (1934-45) Prime Minister, Benito Mussolini (1922-43) Gen. Secretary, Joseph Stalin (1922) Pres. Harry S. Truman (1945)
Italy Dictator Benito Mussolini addresses his followers
I. The Leaders. A. Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) – Italian fascist. 1. Fascism – political philosophy that glorifies the state over the individual; strong central gov’t led by dictator. Totalitarian state – gov’t aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of citizens. • Depression, high inflation, and agricultural & industrial strikes in Italy. • Started out as a socialist, but expelled from party, and then started Fascism. • In 1919, Mussolini creates political group: the League of Combat. Established the first European fascist movement.
2. “Black Shirts” – armed fascists. • Want to conquer the minds and hearts of their subjects with propaganda techniques and high-speed modern communications. • Led by single person and single party; rejected limited gov’t power and ignored individual rights. • Used the “Black Shirts” to attack socialist offices and newspapers and used • violence to break up strikes. • Middle class fear of socialism, communism, and disorder pushed them to fascism. • Used Nationalism and patriotic feelings to gain support.
3. Prime Minister – Appointed in 1922 by King Victor Emmanuel III. a) 1926, IL Duce “The Leader.” • 1926, Fascists outlawed other parties. • 1926, established secret police (OVRA) to monitor political activities & enforce gov’t policies (not as brutal as Nazi’s). • Controlled all media for propaganda “Mussolini Is Always Right.” • Rewrote textbooks to reflect fascist propaganda. • Maintained traditional attitudes to women as “fundamental mission in life.” • 1929, recognized sovereignty of Vatican City and only religion and gave the • Church money (Church also recognized Italy and urged support for fascism). • Gov’t suspended any publication that criticized the Catholic Church, monarchy, or the state; given powers to make laws by decree; police given • unrestricted authority to arrest & jail anyone for nonpolitical / political crimes. • Hitler was student and admirer of Mussolini. • Never had total control like Hitler/Stalin (Muss retained some old institutions/ • independent armed forces were maintained; Victor Emmanuel was still king.
Rise of the Nazis • Germany’s economic problems. • Political instability. • Fascism. • National Socialist German Workers’ Party.
The Swastika has been used as religious symbols long before Hitler used it to represent Fascism. Ancient Buddha symbol In China. Still used by Hindus today. Nordic symbol of Thor. Nazi flag.
Rumors about Hitler Hitler was in love with his niece, Angela Raubal (whom he called Geli). When Geli got pregnant by a Jewish man, she was found dead (gun shot) in Hitlers apartment. Hitler’s paternal grandfather was Jewish (documents burned in Braunau am Inn, Austria, during target practice). "The Hidden Hitler." Professor Machtan’s documented the allegations made to the Munich Police in the early 1920s by a former soldier colleague that Hitler was bisexual. Samuel Igra’s Germany's National Vice alleged Hitler "had been a male prostitute in Vienna … from 1907 to 1912, and …in Munich from 1912 to 1914" (Igra:67). Blamed his not getting accepted into the Academy of Arts on the several Jews on the Admissions board (read anti-Semite authors). In beginning, was a bad speaker, but coached by an Austrian Jew. Was addicted to amphetamines and barbiturates by 1943. Had Parkinson’s disease. Hitler had an abusive father who beat him, an adoring mother, had an inferiority complex, didn’t like his looks, and wanted to be a priest as a child.
B. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945). 1. Mein Kampf – wrote his ideas in jail. a) Aryan – linguistic term. ← People speaking Indo-European languages. “… mass meetings are important because individuals who feel weak and uncertain become intoxicated with the power of the group.” - Hitler, Mein Kampf • Born in Austria but had a mystical belief in the German nation. • Vienna (1907) to be an artist; rejected by Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. • Spent 4-years on the Western Front in WWI. • 1919, involved in politics. • 1921, forms National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi). • Beer Hall Putsch (1923) – failed uprising against the gov’t; quickly crushed; jailed. • Mein Kampf – misused “Aryan” to identify w/ ancient Greeks & Romans and 20th century Germans and Scandinavians.
Nazi State - Hitler used anti-Semitism, economic policy, terror, mass spectacles, and propaganda to build Nazi empire. Aryan racial superiority – (purpose of totalitarian state) to dominate Europe and the world for generations. Aryans thought they were descendants of Gods! Third Reich – The third German Empire. 1st Reich was Holy Roman Empire. 2nd Reich was German Empire of 1871 to 1918. 3rd Reich was supposed to last 1,000 years but only lasted during Nazi reign (1933-1945).
At first, Hitler was a terrible public speaker until he was coached by an Austrian Jew. Now known as a powerful orator, using emotion, theatrics, and voice commands to help in propaganda.
The Nazis promoted a view of Germany as surrounded by enemies and threatened on all sides
2. 1929, Nazi’s had national organization. 1936 Nuremberg rally. Large Nazi rallies were held to increase morale and spread ideas.
The Nazis Gain Power Hitler sworn in as Chancellor, 1933
Feb 28, 1933 3. 1933, Hitler made Chancellor. a) Reichstag Fire Decree – ended civil rights. b) Enabling Act – Hitler’s “legal seizure” of power (dictator). Mar 6 (Elections) Mar 23 • Created a militia known as the SA (Storm Troopers, Brown shirts after the color of their uniform). SA was led by Ernst Rohm & helped Hitler rise to power. • 1932, had 800,000 members & largest party in the Reichstag (German parliament). • 1932, six million Germans unemployed; made extremist parties attractive. • Appeals of national pride, national honor, and traditional militarism struck an • emotional cord with listeners ( angry over Treaty of Versailles / Depression). • 1933, Hindenburg gave in, Hitler creates new gov’t: “Create a new Germany.” • Reichstag had little power. • Enabling Act - ignore the Constitution for 4-years to deal with countries problems. • Hitler supported by right-wing elites: industrial leaders, landed aristocrats, • higher bureaucrats & military officers to save them from Communism.
The Reichstag fire on Feb 27, 1933, seven days before elections that gave Nazi’s a majority. The fire was blamed on Communists. The SA. Hitler’s ideas were based on racism/bigotry and German nationalism. His totalitarian state was widely accepted, but German Jews and minorities were prosecuted. Hitler no longer needed Reichstag or President Hindenburg; was a dictator. Moved quickly to bring all institutions under Nazi control. Civil Service purged of Jews and democratic elements. Trade Unions were dissolved. All other political parties were abolished.
A few days after the Nazi Youth organized an attack on the Institute of Sex Research, their archives were publicly hauled out and burned in the streets of the Opernplatz (Bebelplatz). Around 20,000 books and journals, and 5,000 images were destroyed. Among the volumes destroyed were works by Thomas Mann, Karl Marx, Ernest Hemmingway, Upton Sinclair, Emile Zola, H.G. Wells, Signmund Freud, Helen Keller, Marcel Proust, and Jack London. Also seized were the Institute's extensive lists of names and addresses of LGBT people. In the midst of the burning, Joseph Goebbels, Propaganda Minister, gave a political speech to a crowd of around 40,000 people. May 10, 1933, Nazis in Berlin burned works of Jewish authors and other considered "un-German." 7-months after Chancellor; totalitarian state. Hindenburg died in 1934; president abolished. Public officers and soldiers required to take an oath of loyalty to Hitler as the Führer “leader.”
Night of Long Knives (June 29, 1934) Ernst Rohm, leader of the Nazi SA (Nazi militia) was arrested by Hitler himself on the Night of Long Knives, then murdered by two SS men for plotting a supposed coup and being gay. As many as 400 people were killed during the purge. Hitler explained why he had not relied on the courts to deal with the conspirators: “In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I become the supreme judge of the German people. I gave the order to shoot the ringleaders in this treason.” The Night of the Long Knives was a turning point in the history of Hitler's Germany. Hitler had made it clear that he was the supreme ruler of Germany who had the right to be judge and jury, and had the power to decide whether people lived or died.
4. Heinrich Himmler – Set-up & directed the SS. a) Concentration camps – Large prison camps. Schutzstaffeln People sent to the camps: - Communists - Political opponents / critics - Jews - Slavs - Jehovah Witness - Dissenting clergy - Gypsies - Gay men - Forced laborers - Criminals - Mentally / physically challenged Heinrich Himmler Over 400,000 people were medically sterilized by the Nazis! His chief goal was to further the German master race. Leading organizer of the Holocaust; officer in charge of the concentration camps. Directed medical experiments on gay prisoners (homophobic).
“…The time of personal happiness is over.” -- Adolf Hitler SS (Schutzstaffeln, Gestapo “Guard Squadrons”, black shirts) – originally as Hitler’s bodyguards. Controlled the secret police force (Gestapo) and regular police force. Based on 2 principles: terror and ideology. Terror included repression and murder – secret & regular police, concentration camps, and later had execution squads & death camps. Found guilty of war crimes during the Nuremburg trials. SS Troops
Heinrich Himmler was in charge of all the concentration camps and organized the Holocaust.
The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed by the government of Nazi Germany. They used a pseudoscientific basis for racial discrimination against Jews. People with four German grandparents (white circles on the chart) were of "German blood", while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or more Jewish grandparents (black circles in top row right). One or two Jewish grandparents made someone "mixed blood." The Nazis used the religious observance of a person's grandparents to determine their race. 1935 chart from Nazi Germany used to explain the Nuremberg Laws.
The Hitler Youth was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that existed from 1922 to 1945. The Hitler Youth was the second oldest paramilitary Nazi group, founded one year after the Sturmabteilung (SA) Stormtroopers. Hitler Youth
II. Path to War A. First Steps. 1. Violate the Treaty of Versailles. German troops march into the Rhineland, Supposed to be demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles. • Created new air force: Luftwaffe (Mar 9, 1935). • Began military draft and increased army from 100,000 to 550,000 troops. • Sent troops to the Rhineland (Mar 7, 1936); demilitarized per Versailles. • No country would use force to stop Hitler due to distraction of Depression. Hitler’s theory of Aryan racial domination laid the foundation for aggressive expansion outside Germany.
Wehrmacht is the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. During World War II, it consisted of the army (Heer), the navy (Kriegsmarine), the air force (Luftwaffe), and Waffen SS (Combat arm of the SS). German Panzer VI; Porsche Design. A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. Day of the Wehrmacht
The Luftwaffe German Stuka (dive bomber) Messerschmitt Bf 109 Messerschmitt Me 264 (long range bomber) Messerschmitt Bf 162 (light bomber)
Jesse Owens at 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Germany. Owens won 4 Gold medals (100m, 200m, long jump, & 4x100team). Hitler refused to acknowledge American Jesse Owens after his win.
2. Rome-Berlin Axis (1936) – Italy and Germany partnership. 3. Anti-Comintern Pact (1936) – Germ and Japan agree to fight communism. Hitler and Mussolini Mussolini wanted to create a new Roman Empire, so invaded Ethiopia. After fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia in Oct 1935, England and France condemned action and pushed Italy to become closer to Germany.
The Invasion of Ethiopia 1935 Emperor Hailie Selassie of Ethiopia
Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht), was against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. Jewish homes and stores were ransacked in a thousand German cities, towns and villages, as ordinary citizens and stormtroopers destroyed buildings with sledgehammers, leaving the streets covered in smashed windows — the origin of the name "Night of Broken Glass.“ Jews were beaten to death; 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps; and 1,668 synagogues ransacked or set on fire. Kristallnacht
4. Threatened to invade Austria (1938) – a) ‘Anschluss’ – Austria is annexed by Germany. March 12,1938: Nazis open the crossing point and Austria no longer exists. Hitler in the streets of Vienna 1938. • One of Hitler’s goals of reuniting his native Austria w/ Germany: Anschluss. • The new Austrian gov’t quickly invited German troops to enter Austria and “help” in reinforcing law and order. • The next day, after his triumphant return to Austria, he annexed Austria to Germany.
5. Munich Conference (1938) – Hitler wanted Sudetenland; urgent meeting with Br, Fr, Germ, & Ita. a) Reps agreed to demands. Goering, Mussolini, Hess, Hitler, Ciano, Himmler and Keitel at the Munich conference, 1938. “Peace for our time” boasted Neville Chamberlain of England. Appeasement to Germany to avoid conflict keep peace. • Sudetenland (northwest Czechoslovakia with large population of Germans). • Hitler expressed willingness to risk “world war” to achieve his objectives. • German troops would occupy Sudetenland (Czechs abandoned by the West). • British prime minister Neville Chamberlain boasted “peace for our time.” Hitler broke agreement and annexed all of Czechoslovakia. • Hitler proclaimed in Prague (Mar 15, 1939) that he would be known as “the greatest German of them all.” • Slovakia became a puppet state controlled by Nazi Germany.
Czechs in Sudetenland angrily greet the Nazis in 1938.
The Wehrmacht in Prague, Czech, 1939.
6. Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact – (1939) – Germ and Soviet Union agree not to attack each other. a) Germ invades Poland (Sep 1, 1939). b) Br & Fr declare war on Germ 2 days later. Hitler wanted the Polish port of Danzig. He didn’t think West would fight for Poland. • Hitler wanted to avoid a 2-front war; Planned on breaking the Pact later. • He promised Stalin the western part of Poland and the Baltic states. • Nonaggression Pact shocked world – gave Hitler the freedom to attack Poland.
War in Asia (July 1937 – Sept 1939) The Second Sino-Japanese War began in 1937, when Japan attacked deep into China from its foothold in Manchuria (occupied Manchuria since 1931). Nanking Massacre - The infamous war crime incident committed by the Japanese military in and around Nanking, China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on December 13, 1937. The period of carnage lasted for six weeks, until early February 1938, as approx. 300,000 civilians were raped and murdered as Nanking was looted and burned.
7. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis (1940) – Japan joins Germ & Ita. In 1940, during World War II, the military alliance of Italy and Germany—the so-called Rome-Berlin Axis—was extended to include Japan and became the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. The three countries and their allies, known collectively as the Axis Powers, fought against the Allied Powers in the war. Here, Japanese and Italian emissaries accompany German dictator Adolf Hitler.
Poland surrenders in 4-weeks. III. The Course of WWII. A. Poland invaded (Sep 1, 1939). 1. Blitzkrieg – “lightening war.” 2. Poland divided between Germ & Soviet Union on Sep 28. ► The Germans launched their attacks on Poland with air assaults. German Stuka bombers were instrumental in leading the assault and forcing the eventual surrender of Warsaw. ► England and France declare war on Germany on Sep 3, 1939. • Used armored columns, called panzer divisions, supported by airplanes. • Each panzer division was a strike force of 300 tanks with support forces. • Europe is shocked at the speed and efficiency of attack on Poland. • Waited through the winter “phony war.”