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World war II

World war II

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World war II

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  1. World war II

  2. The League and the U.S. Wilson – FDR = Relative isolationism Rejection of LON, tariff hikes, Red Scare, immigration restriction Global business growing US investments + loans = foreign purchase of US goods ‘22- unofficial observers to LON ‘24 – joint efforts Pacific interests
  3. The War Debt Issue $$  war effort, postwar reconstruction Should it be paid back? Loan $ spent on US military supplies  US prosperity Effort of Allied troops prior to US arrival GB/Fr still owed $ from Rev. US tariffs high  Euro goods $$$$$$ War debt tied to reparation payments
  4. Attempt @ Disarmament Arms limitations = peace Washington Naval Conference, ’21- ‘34 Positives vs. Problems Japanese-American Relations Encroachments in China, Pacific Kellogg-Briand Pact, ‘28 Purpose? “We can outlaw this war system just as we outlawed slavery and the saloon.” American Committee for the Outlawry of War Pact of Paris = no war as nat’l policy (62) * is self-defense US ability to preserve MD, self-defense
  5. “Good Neighbor” Policy Making waves ‘21- Harding OKs $25 m. to Columbia (PC) ‘24- US out of DR US – Mexico Nicaragua issue ‘25 out, ‘27 in (vs. rebel Cesar Augusto Sandino) – ‘33 Oil issue Pan-American Conference- ’28 Coolidge & Hughes Nicaragua, Haiti Hoover’s Latin American tour Clark Memorandum- ‘28/’30
  6. Under FDR ‘33 = 7th Pan-American Conference “no nation has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another.” Removal of marines ‘34 = treaty w/ Cuba that ended Platt Amendment
  8. Japan Advances Mukden incident, ’31  occupation of Manchuria  puppet empire, Manchuko VIOLATION! Nine-Power Treaty, K-B Pact, LON No help for China Stimson Doctrine, ’32 Shanghai bombing Withdrawal from LON, ’33 Response to condemnation of actions Rise of Japanese militarists
  9. Fascism: 1919-1945 Extreme “right wing” conservatism Rebuilding of nation; commitment of people to unite (nationalism); totalitarian/single-party Austria, Hungary, Romania, Spain, ITALY & GERMANY Focus on: intense nationalism, action over reflection, discipline, physical superiority, indoctrination, charismatic leaders Hitler, Mussolini, Franco
  10. Goal? overthrow existing governments Obsessed w/: decline in values, humiliation, “victimhood” (R. Paxton) Wrong: feminism, individualism, liberalism, democracy (parliamentary), communism People identify w/ culture, not class Power of state vs. power of worker (ex: strikes) Power to majority? Quantity vs. Quality; bickering parties Right: traditional values, purity of nation, ACTION (political violence, war)
  11. Italian Fascism Social tensions, depression Black Shirts- organized by Mussolini as private army; use violence to achieve political goals 1922- into power Supported by industrial leaders (fear of comm., need social order) Known as fascism Built strong, powerful state No room for opposition, economic control, invasion of Ethiopia (1935),women=baby factories
  12. German Nazism German form of fascism- more extreme Nazi= National Socialist Worker’s Party of Germany; led by Adolf Hitler Socialist= economy serve the state, not indiv. Not a form of socialism
  13. Gain power during 20s-30s Weimar Republic – in place to sign Treaty, no success in rebuilding economy (inflation, depression, unemployment), no decisive government action Nazi’s spread idea that Germany betrayed by disloyal citizens (vs. losing the war); attack supporters of Weimar gov. in 1920s, Jews, Communists, Socialists Able to win support of middle class, landowners, public Celebrate German/Aryan race, culture, ancestry
  14. Growing Power 1928- Nazi’s= 2.6% of vote; 1938- 37% Hitler placed as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 Rid country of all other parties, arrested opponents, press censorship, police power Under leadership, Germany pulled out of depression Brought in idea of ACTION, return to traditional values Hitler as Fuhrer Rule over Germany by force (absence of reason)
  15. Jews blamed for problems of Germany Launch racial revolution Nuremburg Laws (1935)- no land ownership, no racial mixing, wearing of Star of David (marker) Nov. 9, 1938- Kristallnachtoccurs- nationwide destruction & looting of property, business from Jews
  16. Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Hitler laid out Nazi beliefs and the Nazi plan of action. Nazism was the German brand of fascism & was based on extreme nationalism. 1. Unite all German-speaking people into a great German empire. 2. Enforce racial purification at home. Germans formed a master race (especially blonde-haired, blue-eyed Aryans) that was destined to rule the world. All others (Jews, Slavs, nonwhites) were only fit to serve Aryans. 3. National expansion to gain more living space (so Germany could thrive). This should be accomplished by any means necessary.
  17. The Rise of Fascism- Italy & Germany ‘22- Mussolini Fascist Party Restoration of order, nat’l pride ‘24- “Il Duce” ‘33- Hitler National Socialist German Workers’ Party Struggling Weimar + subservient Reichstag = dictatorship ’34- “Fuhrer”  police state, rearmament, persecution
  18. The Mood in America Increased isolationism SOS Cordell Hull Free trade = peace Effort to build foreign markets ‘34- Trade Agreements Act Reciprocal lowering of tariffs 14, ‘35 29, ‘45 Diplomatic recognition of Soviet Union, ‘33 US + USSR vs. Japan No Commie propaganda in the US Religious freedom to Americans Unpaid czarist debts to US?
  19. Expanding Axis
  20. Degrees of Neutrality Deeper isolationism for US Senator Gerald Nye investigation, ’34 – ’37 “merchants of death” Nonintervention  localized fighting ’36 – ’39- Spanish Civil War Neutrality Laws ’35- no sale of munitions/arms to nations at war, passenger travel Trade material not covered ’36- + no loans to nations at war ’37- also applies to Civil War ‘37- restraint on arms sales, loans, travel, no arming merchant ships, CASH-AND-CARRY on trade materials
  21. Quarantine Speech Oct. ‘37 Int’l “quarantine of aggressor nations” vs. non-intervention Look to positive endeavors vs. aggressors, economic barriers Japan, Italy, Germany Reaction? Protest by anti-interventionists, FDR cools
  22. Challenges to Neutrality July ‘37- Japan v. China (Marco Polo bridge, Peking) No declaration of war  munitions trade w/ China via GB Dec. ‘37- Japanese attack US gunboat Panay & oil tankers Public opinion of Japan  Isolationism still high Ludlow Amendment = attempt to have public referendum for declaration of war. . . FAILS ‘39 – Hitler viewed as int’l gangster Sept. = declaration of neutrality (Poland) “even a neutral has a right to take account of the facts.”
  23. Neutrality Act of 1939 Amendments = CASH AND CARRY for any/all supplies War zone designated Oops!  unrestricted sub warfare, blockade “What the American people want is to be as un-neutral as possible without getting into war.” -Nation
  24. From sitzkrieg to blitzkrieg
  25. The Storm in Europe: 1940
  26. Growing Involvement “We shall go on to the end. . . We shall never surrender.” –Winston Churchill (1940) World crisis Luftwaffe vs. GB FDR shifts focus Post-WWI army reduced to 175k By ‘40  $17 b. for defense (50k planes, military buildup) BUT- demand from GB for supplies high National Defense Research Committee June, ‘40 Military research, atomic bomb (Einstein) SOW- Henry Stimson ® SON- Frank Knox ®
  27. A New State of Affairs Summer, ‘40 = Battle of Britain RAF + radar vs. Luftwaffe + U-boats  US transfer of “overaged” ships to GB GET lease of bases in Caribbean A NEED to defend hemisphere Sept. 16- FIRST peacetime conscription 16 m. men, 21-35 Debate: internationalists v. isolationists What role does the threat on GB play in US nat’l security? Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (Coast, South) America First Committee
  28. FDR’S THIRD TERM 1940-1944
  29. Quadrennial Campaign R = Wendell Willkie (IN): “We want Willkie!” Former Dem., FDR supporter Supported aid to Allies (vs. isolationism) D = FDR Impact of war in Europe Party unity? Foreign policy bring back Southern Dems FDR busy during campaign- defense & diplomacy Pan-American mutual defense, visits to defense facilities, destroyer-bases deal Willkie attack New Deal, focus on gov. programs  attack on FDR foreign policy “If you re-elect him you m ay expect war in April, 1941.” “I have said this before, but I shall say it again and again and again: Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.”
  30. Results-FDR enters 3rd term EC: 449 – 82 Popular: 27 m. – 22 m.
  31. The Great “Arsenal of Democracy” Active, though non-belligerent Four Freedoms Speech, Jan. ’41 Move from isolationism Speech, worship, from want, from fear Move to give aid ($) to GB No direct aid! Does history repeat itself? Johnson Act (‘34) Lend-Lease Program Isolationists view- the road to war Supporters see risk Benefits China, GB
  32. "In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor—anywhere in the world. That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb.“ —Franklin D. Roosevelt, excerpted from the State of the Union Address to the Congress, January 6, 1941
  33. 1943- Norman Rockwell posters
  34. War Rages Late‘40- Italy launches attack on Greece and Egypt Spring ’41- Germans under Rommel aid Italians GB forced back into Egypt April ‘41- Germans overwhelm Yugo., Greece, Crete, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria June ‘41- German attack on Soviet Union GB & US offer aid (Lend-Lease) Threat ofwolfpacks  US Navy patrol N. Atlantic, April ‘41
  35. The Atlantic Charter Statement of int’l principles Self-determination Economic cooperation Freedom of the seas New system of collective security = joint aims of ANTI-AXIS powers GB & US SU Attacks on US ships- fall ‘41 “shoot on sight” Convoy of GB merchant ships Neutrality Act amended- ARM merchant ships! = undeclared naval war
  36. The storm in the pacific Japanese Aggression Leads to War
  37. The Pacific in 1940 Goal of Japan = “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” Oil, rubber, etc. in SE Asia US = 80% fuel Summer ‘40- airfields built in Fr. Indochina, rail line to S. China destroyed No supplies to China Export Control Act- July, ‘40 = restriction of arms, material to Japan Embargo on gas, iron
  38. Sept. = Tripartite Pact Why? Siberia What about SE Asia? April 13, ‘41- non-aggression pact b/t Japan & SU July, ‘41- protectorate over French Indochina FDR response Frozen assets, oil embargo  Japan efforts to attack Dutch/British colonies Gen. MacArthur moved over Far East forces
  39. Toward War SOS Hull insist withdrawal from SE Asia/China PM Fumimaro Konoye- liberal, but pressured by militants Refuse- warlords seek destruction of navy, Philippines Aug. ‘41- attempted agreement b/t US & Japan Sept. 6 = approval of attack on Hawaii Konoye failed to reach compromise Oct. 16 – War Minister Hideki Tojo PM Same day, envoy arrives in US Nov. 20- Japanese proposal Expectation of US to refuse Within a week, Japanese naval force on the move
  40. Attack on Pearl Harbor US knows war is imminent Japanese troop movement S from Formosa (Taiwan) warnings to Pearl Harbor, Manila, GB Possible attack on Dutch/British
  41. December 7th, 1941 Early AM- decoded message from Japan to break diplomatic relations Message delayed War Dept. alert sent 8 ½ hrs late k
  42. The Attack 6 aircraft carriers (387 planes) Oahu was in sight planes split into two groups. RADAR mistook for American planes Japanese submarine spotted  U.S. destroyer fired on it 7:55 am: first bombs &torpedoes dropped One group over land & one over sea. 10:00, 19 sunken/damaged ships, 300 aircraft damaged or destroyed, 3/8 battleships sunk, 2,400 casualties
  43. From Bystander to Belligerent Limited success in attack No attack on oil storage tanks No hits on aircraft carriers (left port) Underestimated the US  unified, vengeful Invasion 8th- Philippines, Guam, Midway, Hong Kong, Malay Peninsula War Declared, Dec. 8th, 1941 FDR: “a date which will live in infamy” Dec. 11th- Germany/Italy declare war on US