Parts of SpeechPowerPoint Presentation James Grizzle 10 October 2010 Honors English 9A Period 2
The Noun What is a noun? A noun is one of the basic parts of speech. It’s required in just about any complete sentence. In short, the noun can be either a person, place, thing or idea. Examples include: The boy, the school, the cat or the fear of something.
The Noun: Common vs. Proper There are a few different types of nouns. The ones we are most familiar with are common and proper nouns. The examples in the last slide are common nouns: boy, school, cat, fear. Proper nouns are more specific: • Instead of the boy, try the boy, David. Instead of the school, try the school, West Valley High School. Instead of the cat, try the cat, Nikki. As you can see, the main difference between common and proper nouns are that proper nouns define the noun more. They’re usually capitalized and rather specific.
The Noun: Concrete vs. Abstract There are two more types of nouns: concrete nouns and abstract nouns. We’re more used to concrete nouns. Again, these would be like the cat, the dogand the school. Notice that the example, “the fear” isn’t used in this case. That’s because it’s abstract. Abstract nouns are differentiated like so: • Concrete Nouns: • Can be touched • Physical things like clouds and air • Abstract Nouns: • Usually feelings • Cannot be touched: Thought, love, fear • Hence the name “abstract"
The Pronoun What is a pronoun? A pronoun is basically a word that is used in place of one or more nouns… Or even pronouns! Some common examples are he, she, her, his, they, and so on and so forth. The word that a pronoun stands in place of or refers to is known as the antecedent pronoun.
The Pronoun: The Different Types There are a few different types of pronouns. Personal pronouns refer to someone who is speaking (1st person), the one spoken to (2nd person) and the one spoken about (3rd person). Some examples of personal pronouns:
Another type of pronoun is known as the demonstrative pronoun. Demonstrative pronouns are used to point out specifics, like people, places, things or ideas. Some examples are this, that, these or those. Interrogative pronouns introduce questions. Some examples are who, whom, which, what or whose.
The Pronoun: Examples Personal pronouns • No matter how hard I tried, she refused to date me. • One day, she might see what she missed out on. Demonstrative pronouns • That is my computer, so don’t touch it! • This uniform for cross country is better than those ones for the football team. Interrogative pronouns • To whom is this letter addressed to? • Which of these backpacks belong to me?
The Adjective The adjective is probably one of the most vital parts of speech. An adjective is anything that alters a noun, defining it more. Words like green, blue and pretty are all examples of adjectives. Demonstrative adjectives are adjectives that can be used both as adjectives and pronouns. They are the same as demonstrative pronouns. They’re adjectives when they modify nouns/pronouns, but pronouns when they take the place of nouns/pronouns.
The Adjective: Pronouns vs. Adjectives As you’ve probably figured out by now, some words can be both pronouns and adjectives. When used as pronouns, they take the place of nouns or other pronouns. But when they’re adjectives, they modify nouns or pronouns.
The Adjective: Examples Here’s an example paragraph. Today, there is going to be an awesome game at Hemet High School. This game’s going to be intense. It’s a rivalry game against West Valley High School. Of course, I have Mustang Pride! I think we have a good chance at seriously injuring their school’s slim chances at CIF. By the end of the day, I’m sure that we’ll have them crying heart-breaking tears – even the band will be sobbing uncontrollably on the field!
The Verb A verb is a word that is used to express action or a state of being. The verb can be classified in three ways: Helping verbs, action verbs and transitive verbs. Helping verbs are verbs that help main verbs express a state of being.
The Verb: Action vs. Non-Action Action verbs and non-action verbs (linking verbs) have a specific distinction: action verbs actually describe what someone is doing (He was running across the street), whereas non-action verbs link subjects to the words that describe them. Some non-action verbs are:
The Verb: Examples Action verbs: I felt as if Ms. Leisten’s treatment of the situation wasn’t helping any. I loved running so much I joined the cross country team. Helping verbs: I can run 3.1 miles in about 23 minutes. One day, I will be able to run it in about 18 minutes.
The Adverb An adverb is like the adjective for a verb. It basically describes a verb, adjective or another adverb. Adverbs modifying verbs:
The Adverb: Continued Adverbs modifying adjectives: ExamplesBeth did an exceptionally fine job. He is an especially talented chef Adverbs modifying adverbs: Examples Calvin was almost never there. We’ll meet shortly afterward.
The Preposition A preposition is a word or phrase that shows the relationship of a noun/pronoun to another word. Here’s some examples of some commonly-used prepositions:
The Preposition: Compound Prepositions Compound prepositions are prepositions that are two words or more (hence “phrases” in the first slide). Some compound prepositions consist of:
The Preposition: Examples Here are some examples of compound prepositions (check slide 17 for commonly-used prepositions): I sprinted in front of Tomas at the Yucaipa Invitational Alas, because of my cramp, he finished 5th to last in place of myself. Prior to the race, I thought I’d do very well.
The Conjunction A conjunction is a word that joins words or word groups. Coordinating conjunctions join words/word groups that are used in the same way, while correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that joins words/word groups that are used in the same way.
The Conjunction: FANBOYS! One way to remember coordinating conjunctions are through a list called “FANBOYS”: For And Nor But Or Yet So Examples: Coordinating conjunctions: I tried to sprint ahead, for Brandyn was passing me and I wanted to win the race. I came in last place at Yucaipa, but it was a lot of fun! Correlative conjunctions: I beat neither Nathan Newberry nor Sergio Grajeda. However, a Beaumont, both Tomas and Manuel came after I did.
The Interjection An interjection is a word that expresses emotion. There is no grammatical relation between the interjection and the rest of the sentence. Examples: Yow! That hurts, Marie! Yikes! You scared me to death, Rebecca! Ah… I think I just felt my heart break.