INCLUDING THE MUSLIM NORTHERN AFRICAN COUNTRIES
Most populous islamic nations • Indonesia (194 million) • Pakistan (137 million) • Bangladesh ( 113 million) • Iran (65 million) • Turkey (65 million) • Nigeria (61 million)
MUSLIMS-FOLLOWERS OF ISLAM • 80% OF ALL MUSLIMS ARE NOT ARAB. • BUT 90% OF ALL ARABS ARE MUSLIM
MUSLIMS IN PAKISTAN, AFGHANISTAN BANGLADESH
COUNTRIES OF THE MIDDLE EAST • Lebanon • Libya • Morocco • Oman • Qatar • Saudi Arabia • Syria • Tunisia • Turkey • United Arab Emirates • Yemen • Afghanistan • Algeria • Bahrain • Cyprus (Greek)** • Cyprus (Turk) • Egypt • Iran • Iraq • Israel** • Jordan • Kuwait
THE MIDDLE EAST HAS ABOUT 64% OF THE WORLD’S PROVEN OIL RESERVES AMD 34% OF ITS GAS RESERVES.
PALESTINE AND THE EMERGENCE OF ISRAEL • 1095-1291-Crusades(3) –Christians tried • to reclaim the Holy Land. Failed-Islamic leader, Saladin, defeated Christians • 1453-1918- Ottoman Empire controlled Turkey and lands along eastern Mediterranean including Palestine • 1896-1916- Zionist Movement founded by Theodore Herzl which encouraged Jews to return to their homeland in Palestine
Jewish population in Palestine grew from 12,000 in 1896 to 85,000 in 1914 • 1916- after WW I , Arab region around Palestine was divided into zones of influence called mandates: • France- Syria and Lebanon • Britain-Iraq and Jordan • Palestine was internationalized • 1917-Balfour Declaration issued by British government favored the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people
1947-United Nations adopted a plan to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish states with Jerusalem as an international zone • Jews received 56% of the land, but 2/3 of the population was of Arabic origin. Jews were given the coastal area while the Palestinians received the inland arid andmountainous areas • 1948- May 14th the nation of Israel was proclaimed. On May 15th Israel was invaded by its Arab neighbors
PALESTINIANS CALL ISRAEL’S INDEPENDENCE AS THE “AL-NAKBA” MEANING CATASTROPHE IN ARABIC
PALESTINIAN REFUGEES IN 1948 Over 450,000 Palestinians left/were forced to leave their homes in March, 1948. Jews claim that the Palestinians were encouraged to leave by their Arab leaders. Palestinians claim that they were forced to leave.
Thousands of Palestinians fled to neighboring countries becoming refugees • Israel survived the attack by its neighbors and began to develop the land • 1964- PLO-Palestinian LiberationOrganization was established • 1967- Six day war between Israel, Egypt,Jordan, and Syria. Israel won and gained lands of • West Bank Golan Heights • Gaza Strip Sinai Peninsula
1972- Olympics in Munich, Germany. Arab terrorists attacked the Israeli dormitory killing 11 Israeli athletes. Five terrorists and one policeman were also slain.
1979- Camp David Peace Treaty between Egypt (Anwar el Sadat) and Israel (Menaham Begin) Sinai Peninsulareturned to Egypt and Egypt recognized Israel as a nation
1981-Anwar el Sadat of Egypt is assassinated by an Islamic fundamentalist.
1982 – Shiite terrorist group Hezbollah (Party of God) is formed and based in Lebanon.
1987- Intifada first coined during this year. An Arabic word derived from the root meaning “to shake”. Palestinians wanted to shake off the chains of occupation. Symbolic stone throwing protests against Israeli soldiers
Late 1980s, Palestinian uprisings (intifada) over Israeli occupation of West Bank and Gaza Strip.
1987- HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement) formed. Plans to use political and violent means to create an Islamic Palestinian state. Influence concentrated in Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
1993- Oslo Accords negotiates near Oslo, Norway, was an historic agreement between Israel and the PLO. Marked the first time that Israel and Palestinians formally recognized each other’s existence
RABIN CLINTON ARAFAT (ISRAEL) (U.S.) (PLO) OSLO ACCORDS 1993
1994-Jordan (King Hussein) signs peace treaty at the White House with Israel.
1995-present-Israelis establish Jewish settlements in Gaza Strip, West Bank, and Golan Heights. Israeli settlements in Gaza have been dismantled. More are being built in the West Bank.
1995 –Rabin is assassinated by an Orthodox Jewish Israeli because “Rabin was going to give our country to the Arabs”.
EHUD OLMERT PRIME MINISTER OF ISRAEL PART OF THE KADIMA PARTY FOUNDED BY SHARON-MORE CENTRIST THAN LIKUD PARTY
MAHMOUD ABBAS- NEW LEADER OF THE PLO
-2002-2004-Intifada continues to escalate increased violence and bombings
Ayat -18 years old Rachel-17 years old
Population of Israel- 6.7 million ( 83% are Jews) most others are Arabs • Size about the size of Massachusetts • West Bank -2.4 million (83% are Palestinian Arabs) 17% Israeli Jews • Gaza Strip - 1.5 million (99.4% Palestinian Arabs, .6% Jews)
KEY ISSUES • Palestinian statehood- boundaries? • Jerusalem- both Israel and Palestinians want Jerusalem as its capital • Refugees -over 4 million displaced persons are in neighboring nations and in Israel • Security and terrorism – Israel wants assurance that attacks will cease • Settlements – Israeli settlements in the West Bank • Water - How should water be distributed?
2004-present West Bank Barrier under construction. Israelis believe it necessary • for security.