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Middle East

Middle East

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Middle East

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  1. Middle East • Background • location in area of great physical and human interaction with diffusion of ideas and peoples • importance of outside influences impinging of established cultures • dominance of Islam and Arabic language except for Turkey, Iran, and Israel • presence of 2/3’s of world’s oil resources • rapid economic and geographical changes after WWI

  2. impact of the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 • existence of strategic“choke points” like Strait of Gibraltar, Dardanelles and Bosporous, Suez Canal, and Strait of Hormuz • revival of Islamic fundamentalism • cohesion of a distinctive physical environment dominated by arid conditions • most people live on desert margins where water is available, ie. Mediterranean coast, Nile/Tigris-Ephrates, or highlands of Turkey/Iran

  3. North African and Southwest Asian countries occupy 11% of world’s land but only 7% of the world’s people. • one of world’s most strategic areas, cockpit of international conflict and political instability • five sub-regions: (1) North Africa, west of Egypt; (2) Nile Valley; (3) Heartland of Arab world from Syria to Oman; (4) Israel, Gaza, and West Bank; (5) Iran and Turkey

  4. Islamic Religion and Arabic Language • Islam is most basic and influential element of the region • Islam established by Mohammed in Arabian peninsula, spread from Arabia to North Africa and Spain in west and Central Asia in east • Five pillars of Islam • (1) profession of faith, shahada • (2) daily prayer • (3) giving alms, zakat • (4) fasting in the month of Ramadan • (5) making the pilgrimage to Mecca, hajj

  5. divisions within Islam between Sunni and Shia (90% of Iranian population are Shiites) • gender inequalities in Muslim countries • importance of Arabic language as unifying cultural force with regional variations • language of Holy Koran • Muslim mosques distinctive feature of cities/towns • Berber language in North Africa; Persian (Farsi) in Iran; Turkish language in Turkey; Kurdish language in parts of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria; and Hebrew in Israel • Islamic art, architecture, and calligraphy

  6. Sacred Mosque at Mecca, Saudi Arabia

  7. Mosque of the Prophet at Medina, Saudi Arabia

  8. Natural Environment • dry climate and desert vegetation • whole region dominated by arid conditions, high evaporation, high temperatures • some marginal areas receive more rain like coasts of western North Africa, eastern Mediterranean, mountains of Turkey and Iran • coastal locations and guaranteed sunshine attract tourists • advantage of growing citrus fruits, olives, grapes and early vegetables for domestic and foreign markets

  9. scarcity of water • water available from melting snows in mountains of Maghrib, Turkey, Iran, from underground stores (oases), from external sources like equatorial rains that feed the Nile • growth of oil industry, urbanization, and industrialization have major impacts on limited water resources • desalination plants • desertifiction began thousands of years ago- North Africa was breadbasket of Roman empire, cave paintings reveal a more moist environment

  10. Middle East Climates

  11. oil resources • discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia and Gulf fundamental altered region • Saudi Arabia and Gulf contain 2/3’s of world’s proven reserves of oil • rest of region either has no oil or relatively little oil. Libya has significant oil resources; Tunisia, Egypt, and Syria produce limited quantities of oil • tremendous impact of oil on domestic economies and the world economy • period of 1973-80 one of high oil prices and accumulation of large capital reserves

  12. establishment of OPEC in 1960, oil cartel of major producers to keep supply and demand favorable • use of the oil weapon in 1973 punish West for support of Israel in Yom Kipper War • fourfold increase in price of oil leading to massive oil revenues for OPEC countries • major investments in new roads, hospitals, government buildings, airports, and military hardware • influx of immigrant labor in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Gulf States • impact of falling oil prices in 80’s and 90’s on domestic economies

  13. Gulf War 1991 fought to prevent Saddam Hussein from controlling vast petroleum reserves of region • ecological consequences of the war, retreating Iraqi soldiers set 700 oil wells on fire, impact of fires on air pollution, and pollution of Persian Gulf • threat of continuing instability in the region • American intervention and occupation of Iraq • Rise of militant Islam • Prospects for stability very uncertain

  14. North Africa; Physical Map

  15. North AfricaPhysical Map

  16. NORTH AFRICA • Background • composed of Algeria, Libya, Morocco (Western Sahara), and Tunisia • region also known as the Maghrib • westernmost sector of the Arab world • diverse historical influences- Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Ottomans, and French • Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia retain close ties with France • strong link to markets in Europe for selling products, buying goods,

  17. share an adherence to Islam as the dominant religion and Arabic as the official language (educated classes still speak French) • link with other Muslim Arab countries strengthened when Arab League headquarters from Cairo (Egypt) to Tunis. • countries exist in a harsh, largely arid environment that restricts agriculture • most human settlement confined to a small percentage of their territory, • increasing problems of water supply as the population continues to increase rapidly

  18. Algeria, Libya, and, to a smaller extent, Tunisia are now oil producers with income from this source has been invested in broadening the economic base into manufacturing. • the four countries of North Africa have population around 28 million • Libya and Tunisia have natural environments that include cultivated coastal areas in the north, desert interiors, and the high Atlas Mountain ranges with their interior plateaus • Algeria and Libya have 80% of territory in the desert • northern parts of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia dominated by Atlas Mountains

  19. Algeria and Libya are major oil and gas producers • Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia mine and export phosphate for fertilizer • Algeria is one of the most prosperous countries in the African continent, but has a tumultuous recent history • bloody war of independence with France until 1962 • experienced democratic and military rule • curtailment of elections by the army in 1992 led to a civil war with the dispossessed Islamic militants

  20. terrorist activity is now devastating Algeria's economy and people. • Morocco has political stability under its moderate king, King Hassan II who gained international Muslim credibility following his mediating role in Arab issues and the construction of a massive new mosque in Casablanca. • Tunisia is modernizing under democratic rule. President Bourguiba replaced by Ben Ali in 1987 • Libya remains under the strong direction of Colonel al Gadhafi who seized power in 1969 and runs the country as a military republic. • The former Spanish Sahara was annexed by Morocco in 1976, leading to an internal war with the Polasario Front

  21. Population and Culture • populations of all the North African countries continue to grow rapidly, • lower population growth in Tunisia because of several governmental policies, i.e. forbidding of polygamy, minimum age for marriage, and instituting a successful family planning program. • Morocco has set up a program to empower women, including family planning, maternal, and child services. • despite the reduction of fertility in the most populous countries, the total population of these five countries rose from just under 50 million in 1980 to almost 70 million in 1993, and could be over 110 million by A.D. 2025.

  22. growth of population in North African countries occurs in urban areas, which now contain over half the total population • largest cities include Algiers (Algeria, nearly 4 million), Casablanca (Morocco, 3.5 million), Tripoli (Libya, around 3 million), and Tunis (Tunisia, just over 2 million) • rapid population growth creates problems for the education systems and employment prospects • shortages of skilled labor continue despite the effect of intensive education programs • growing university educated group in each country, but they find few employment opportunities in their home country.

  23. problems of employment led many North Africans to migrate to France and other European countries • remittances of money sent home are important additions to local income. • Economic Development • problems facing North African countries stem from the type of economy established in colonial times with its built-in dependence on Europe. • land appropriation for settlers who farmed commercially and used irrigation water for intensive farming that was tied to markets in Europe. • Manufacturing and oil exploration were not encouraged

  24. export crops, such as citrus and olive oil, continue to be produced on large holdings of over 124 acres • North African countries still need to import up to half their food needs • only Morocco has as much as half of its population still dependent on agriculture • Morocco is contesting the management of fishing grounds off Western Africa with the European Union and, particularly, Spain. The main fish caught are squid (for export to Japan), tuna, and hake. • Morocco continues to export cork from the bark of oak trees in the northern area of the country. • Oil and natural gas dominate the economies and exports of Algeria and Libya.

  25. Libya, with its small population, suddenly gained great riches that were nationalized after an initial phase of development by multinational oil companies Algeria and Libya are major world producers with refining and petrochemical industries • Pipelines bring the oil and natural gas from interior locations to coastal ports and refineries (Figure 3.15). • Manufacturing is growing in all countries and now contributes 20% (Morocco) to 30% (Algeria) of GDP. • In Morocco and Tunisia, tourism is a major source of income, based on their sunshine, coastal locations, historic and cultural features, shopping opportunities and stable political environments • Tunisia has a thriving film industry due to good location and spectacular scenery (Star Wars/English Patient)

  26. In the 1990s, North African countries are attempting to privatize large sections of their economies • Tunisia is farther ahead and even has its own sock exchange; Morocco is following with unparalleled sales of state holdings • populations of all the North African countries continue to grow rapidly, • despite the reduction of fertility in the most populous countries, the total population of these five countries rose from just under 50 million in 1980 to almost 70 million in 1993, and could be over 110 million by AD. 2025. • growth of population in North African countries occurs in urban areas, which now contain over half the total population

  27. Map of Fez, Morocco

  28. Fez, Morocco

  29. Nile Valley-Egypt and Sudan • flow of water from Nile crucial to Egypt and Sudan • 1959 Nile Waters Agreement shared water between Egypt and Sudan with Sudan getting 30% of total • Egypt largest population of any Arab country with 65 million people • Egypt has great power and influence in the Arab world, strategic location with Suez canal • Sudan the largest country in area but only has half the population of Egypt and is the poorest country of the region

  30. Gamal Abdul Nasser’s coup in 1952, establishment of socialism and non-alignment in world affairs • nationalization of Suez canal in 1956, Suez Crisis 1956, Six-Day War with Israel in 1967 and turn toward Russia • Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser stored three times amount of annual water for agriculture and hydroelectric power • Egypt’s shift to more pro-West , pro-US and accommodationist policy vis-à-vis Israel in 1970’s and its consequences in the Arab World • Sudan plagued by problems of drought, political instability, and refugees problems from Ethiopia

  31. Population • both Egypt and Sudan have rapidly expanding populations • Egypt making some progress to reduce growth rates with help of US and UN aid • progress to reduce fertility may depend on raising the status of women and some progress being made here • Cairo’s population expanded to 13 million with huge transportation, sanitation and housing problems • Alexandria’s population at 4 million • Khartoum, capital of Sudan has 2.5 million and population is growing faster than the government can provide services

  32. Economic Development • Egypt has moved from economy dominated by cotton production for export to one emphasizing food production, i.e.. sugar, rice, vegetables, and fruit • still not self sufficient in food production, but investment has boosted production • Agricultural Reform Act of 1952 designed to limit landholding; redistribution to peasants • industrialization potential based on power generated by the Aswan dam has not fully materialized • some industrialization based on iron and steel industries, chemicals, assembly of cars, food processing, tire manufacturing, etc.

  33. ecological problems caused by Aswan Dam- silting, salinization, schistosomiasis • double/triple cropping in most areas with irrigation • cotton, alfalfa, wheat, maize, rice are main crops • nationalized industries overregulated • remittances from Egyptian workers in Saudi Arabia and Gulf benefited the economy in 80’s • Gulf War in 1991 led to many workers returning home • end of Cold War may lead to less US aid ($10 billion) • tourism capable of generating large foreign exchange earning ($2 billion in 92), but Islamic terrorism since the 1990 has hurt this sector; beach resorts at Sharm el-Sheikh at southern tip of Sinai popular

  34. Suez canal revenues static but not growing much • incomes from Upper Egypt south of Cairo are about half the incomes from the Delta to Cairo • Sudan’s economy very poor with little prospect of outside help from US or other Western countries • cotton provided 50% of Sudan’s exports in good times • civil war, drought, pressures from refugees from Ethiopia produced difficult conditions in Sudan • decreasing world prices for cotton and sugar have hurt both Egyptian and Sudanese economies • restiveness of Egyptians

  35. Arab Southwest • Background • heart of Arab world consists of Arabian Peninsula and fertile crescent from Tigris-Euphrates to the Lebanese coast • includes countries of Iraq with 23 million people; Saudi Arabia with 21 million; Syria with 17 million, Yemen with 18 million, and Gulf states with a total of 6 million • center of the Islamic religion and focus of Muslim pilgrimage at Mecca (Mekkah)

  36. focus of oil industry on eastern shore of Persian Gulf • oil-rich countries have built internal infrastructure, built up military strength, and provided full welfare services for the population • cost of Gulf War in 1991 and drop in world oil prices have had an adverse effect on the economies of the region • presence of Israel in midst of Arab heartland has been thorny political issue • US foreign policy of unconditional support for Israel has created problems for the US in the region

  37. Countries of Arab Southwest • Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen • Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman produce oil but have little water • Lebanon and Jordan have some water but no oil • Syria and Iraq have both oil and water • Yemen has no oil and little water

  38. some efforts to share oil wealth before Gulf War in 1991 with poorer states but falling prices and political conflicts between Arab states has lessened contributions • tensions between donor countries (Gulf states) and debtor nations (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Yemen) • lack of skilled labor has led to massive importation of foreign workers from Arab world, Indian subcontinent, Korea, and Philippines • tension over Tigris-Euphrates between Turkey and Syria/Iraq

  39. Sunni majorities in most Gulf countries, but tensions between Sunnis and Shiites have complicated relations in the region • border disputes between Saudi Arabia and Yemen and between Iraq and Kuwait which led to Gulf War • Population • rapid population growth in region • large population of youths • life expectancies vary from 65+ years of age in Gulf to 46 years in Yemen • migrations still way of life for Bedouins

  40. high urbanized population in most states • largest cities include Bagdad, Iraq (4 million); Amman, Jordan (1.5 million); Beirut, Lebanon (1.5 million); Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2 million); Damascus, Syria (5 million); Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, (1.5 million) Aleppo, Syria (1.5 million) • Economic Development • great contrast between countries with high oil revenue and countries with no oil • Persian Gulf countries sitting on huge oil reserves with relatively small populations

  41. Iraqi economy virtually destroyed as consequence of the Gulf War, sanctions prevent exports and imports though a limited amount of medicine and food are permitted • before oil discovery, Gulf states engaged in low intensity farming where water was available or nomadic herding where water was scarce • crops like dates and citrus exported • crude oil make up 85-90% of exports • challenge to move to a more diversified manufacturing base

  42. Kuwait attempting to restore production of oil wells, wiped out in Iraqi invasion and setting of fires by retreating Iraqi soldiers • Kuwait overseas assets fell from $100 billion to $35 billion • new industrial cities of Jubail on Gulf and Yanbu on Red sea in Saudi Arabia major centers of new petrochemical plants and manufacturing industries • gasoline, electricity, water and telephone highly subsidized • creation of a new university system in Saudi Arabia and Gulf states to turn out skilled labor

  43. Iraq could have been a major leader in the region but instead chose to make war on Iran and Kuwait, neglected agricultural resources, and spent huge sums on military equipment • economic progress in non-oil producing countries like Jordan and Yemen very slow • loss of West Bank to Israel in 1967 hurt Jordanian economy and led to significant problems with Palestinian refugees • Beirut, the Paris of the Middle East, virtually destroyed in 1975 civil war, now experiencing a commercial building explosion, money returning

  44. Saudi Arabia • Background • kingdom divided among various clans in 19th C • crucial role of Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, founder of modern Saudi Arabian state • consolidated tribal and regional units into Saudi kingdom before discovery of oil • very poor desert kingdom prior to WW II • discovery of oil near Dammam in 1938, no large scale production until after WW II • oil production developed by ARAMCO (Arabian American Oil Co) owned by 4 large multinational oil companies