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Middle East

Middle East

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Middle East

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Middle East European Claims in Muslim Regions

  2. Stresses in Muslim Regions • Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals were all in decline • Faced internal decay and stress • Faced increasing threats from European Powers

  3. Problems for the Ottoman • Nationalist Revolts Break Out • Nationalism spreads and revolts weaken the multiethnic Empire • European Pressure Increases • European States fought for control of territory from the crumbling empire • Efforts to Westernize • Empire seeks to modernize and look to the west for ideas • Sultans or rulers rejected reform and tried to rebuild the autocratic power of earlier rulers • Young Turks Demand Reform • Insist reform is the only way to save the empire • Overthrow the Sultan

  4. Armenian Genocide • Traditionally Ottoman had let minorities live in their own communities and practice their own religion • Nationalism created tension between nationalists and minorities • Led to genocide – deliberate attempt to destroy a racial, political, or cultural group • Muslim Turks accused Christian Armenians of supporting Russian plans against the Ottoman • Result: over the next 25 years, Between 600,000 and 1.5 million Armenians were killed

  5. Egypt Seeks to Modernize • Muhammad Ali – Father of Modern Egypt • Introduced political and economic reforms • Increased participation in world trade • Used Western experts to build a modern army

  6. Building the Suez Canal • European Nations gained control over the Ottomans by extending loans at high interest rates • Egypt was unable to repay loans for the canal • Forced to sell their shares to the British • Egypt becomes a Protectorate of the British

  7. Persia and the European Powers • Britain and Russia competed for control of the Persians • Discovery of oil heightened foreign interest • Both persuade Persia to grant them concessions – special rights given to foreign powers • To protect their investments both sides send in troops • Persian Nationalists are outrages • 1) Move swiftly to adopt Western Ways • Muslim religious leaders – condemned the Persian government and Western influences