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Middle East

Middle East

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Middle East

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  1. Middle East Periods 1-6

  2. Period 1 • Domestication of Grains- Middle East has the earliest evidence of agriculture • Remember the change from food gathering to food production known as Neolithic Revolution • Began producing grains-wheat & barley • Plants spread to nearby civilizations through cultural diffusion • Domesticated animals(cows and camels) • Middle East is the cradle of civilization with numerous period 1 civilizations • By 4000 BCE there were independent villages like Jericho on the Jordan river and CatalHuyuk in southern Turkey

  3. Period 1-Basic Concepts of Civilization • Reliable food surpluses- farming and domesticated animals • Specialized Labor- there is enough food that people can do jobs other than agriculture • Clear social class distinctions- usually based on prestige and/or wealth • Growth of cities • Complex, formal government • Long Distance Trade • Organized writing systems-enabled traders, religious leaders and political leaders to communicate (EXCEPTION is Inca who did not have writing)

  4. Mesopotamia-earliest civilization • Location: between Tigris & Euphrates rivers-modern day Turkey • Government: • Began as theocracies which were city states by Sumerians which were conquered by Sargon the Great of Akkadian Empire • Hammurabi of Babylon conquered Mesopotamia • Hammurabi Code- written set of laws- based on class • Three Social Distinctions created by Hammurabi Code: 1) free landowning class, 2) dependent farmers, 3) slaves who were prisoners of war or debtors • Women lost status with agriculture because had more children to work farm but women could own property and participate in trade • Economics: • Agricultural society, Location was crossroads of trade-traded mostly grains, Slavery common • Invented bronze to make harder metal used for weapons • Long distance trade included sailing Persian Gulf

  5. Mesopotamia cont… • Culture: • Writing-Sumerians invented writing- cuneiform • Epic of Gilgamesh- epic journey like Homer’s Odyssey or Virgil’s Aeneidalso tells of great flood like Bible • Religion- polytheistic based on agricultural gods who were gloomy/vengeful, • built ziggurats as temples • Math & Science- developed number system based on 12, 60, 360 still used today in our time and geometry

  6. Egypt • Environment- used their environment to their advantage • In Nile River valley (same latitude as Mesopotamia) • predictable flooding (optimistic society) leads to agricultural fertility • Cataracts (rapids) protect from invasion/surrounded by desert which protects too • Economics • Agricultural • No use for bronze weapons since had natural barriers to invasion- used bronze weapons after defeat by Hyksos • Sailed Persian Gulf and Mediterranean-traded gold, linens, leather goods, silver in exchange for ebony, ivory, cattle, slaves, cosmetics • Government- • Pharaoh is both king and god (most powerful king in history), reincarnation of sky god

  7. Egypt cont… • Social Structure: fewer class distinctions than Mesopotamia • Culture • Religion- • polytheistic-gods based on nature • Re-God of sun, Isis-god of Nile, Osiris-god of dead • Pyramids-tombs for pharaoh • Writing- • hieroglyphics – • Book of Dead- on papyrus, compilation of rituals of death • Developed Calendar

  8. How did Period 2 differ from Period 1? • Empires bigger and stronger military • More complex cultures- major religions develop esp in Middle East (Judaism & Christianity) but Islam develops in Period 3-faiths spread during period 2 • More numerous and better written records-alphabets develop making literacy easier but certainly not universal literacy • More complex long distance trade-great trade routes connect the regions. Exs: Silk Road, Indian Ocean route and Saharan caravans—Middle East connected to all routes- empires grew wealthier, culture spread • More contact between nomadic and sedentary people-

  9. Trade Routes of Period 2 link Middle East to Rome, East Asia and Africa Silk Road goods moving east: horses, alfalfa, grapes pistachio, sesame, spinach & Christianity Goods moving west: silk, peaches, cinnamon Stirrups moving both ways from central Asia Indian Ocean Route Ivory from Africa, India & Mesopotamia Fragrances & pearls from Middle East Spices from India & SE Asia Manufactured goods & pottery from China Saharan Routes Camels from Egypt allowed trade routes to be established Salt exchanged for kola nuts & palm oil

  10. Period 2: 600 BCE- 600 CE Phoenicians controlled trade routes in the Mediterranean around 600 BCE and linked the Greeks to the Middle East • Known for their seafaring • Created alphabet based on phonics- • more simple than previous written languages • Greeks added vowels to Phoenician alphabet • Basis of most modern languages • Phoenicians absorbed by Assyrian Empire Phoenician Empire

  11. Hellenistic Period = post Alex when spread Greek culture • Many Greeks moved to his previous empire (migration) spreading Greek culture • Created network connected by culture/language & trade Alexander the Great (336-349 BCE) • Macedonian, inherited army from father, Philip II • Conquered Anatolia (Turkey), Egypt, Persia to Indus River valley (India) • Tried to merge Greek & Middle Eastern cultures through marriage

  12. Roman Empire controls trade on Mediterranean through much of later period 2

  13. Roman Influence in Middle East • Government-Rome had efficient bureaucracy that was used to rule the vast empire- Augustus Caesar reformed military, economy and government • Implemented civil service to run empire (like China)- equites • **Codified law (written code)- Law of Twelve Tables • **Set up judges to hear cases-bases of modern precedent and natural law • Used army as building and engineering crew to build infrastructure (roads, canals, aqueducts) –roads facilitated trade • Augustus’ reforms allowed for PaxRomana- time of peace lasted until 200 CE then Rome started to decline • Conquered peoples- some gained citizenship but many were slaves-Rome expanded for slaves-they relied on slave labor (like Aztecs who expanded in order to get people for sacrifice) • Culture: based on Greek culture, new language Latin- which spread, literature (Virgil’s Aeneid& Ovid’s poetry,

  14. Roman Empire split between West and East • Empire became huge- hard to defend, communicate, effectively administer • 4th century Emperor Constantine created a second capital at Constantinople • Eastern half of empire developed independently of west when west conquered by migrating nomads (Huns and Germanic) defeated western empire (Rome) • Created Byzantine Empire • Developed Eastern Orthodox form of Christianity • Byzantine emperor is head of BOTH government and religion (increased power)

  15. During Period 2, Three monotheistic faiths began in Middle East • Judaism- **1st monotheistic faith**- Jewish belief in one god distinguished them from everyone else • Abraham was founder; Sacred text= Hebrew Bible • Jews scattered by their conquerors- any scattering of people is a diaspora • Zoroastrianism- official religion of the Persian Empire- good vs evil- man could choose his path • Christianity • Founder- Jesus, Sacred Text-Bible • 1/3 Universal faiths (Buddhism, Islam & Christianity) because open to all/ everyone equal chance at salvation • Especially appealed to poor! • Missionaries spread faith- Paul tried to spread to Greeks & Romans • Rome persecuted early Christians but then emperor Constantine issued Edict of Milan (313) which tolerated faith and Constantine converted • Spread along trade routes esp Silk Road

  16. Continuities of Period 3(600-1450) • Belief Systems unifying force for societies- Islam begins and unifies ME, Christianity- Europe but too late to save Roman Empire, Hinduism-India, Buddhism- China, Korea, SE Asia • Civilization spreads to Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe & Japan, height of nomadic power • Trade increased and societies interdependent-technology and culture spread, routes more complex, disease spread

  17. Beginning of Islam • Pre-Islam- Mecca & Medina were trading cities controlled by Bedouin clans practicing polytheistic & animistic faith (belief that spirits in every part of nature) • Mecca controlled by Umayyad clan- rich from trade and visits to relics in town –Ka’ba which held Black Stone • Muhammed • Merchant- exposed to many different groups including monotheistic Jews and Christians • Had visions of angel telling him about Allah • Fled to Medina- hijrah- founding date of new faith • Islam united clans of Medina and eventually Mecca

  18. Basic Beliefs of Islam • Allah is the one God • Prayer 5 times a day, facing Mecca • Fasting during the month of Ramadan) demonstrating commitment to faith • Alms to poor- historically, Muslims not taxed in Muslim states because they gave to the poor • Hajj- once in lifetime, expected to make pilgrimage to Mecca- great opportunity to spread ideas/technology throughout Muslim world Sacred Text- Qur’an Universalizing faith because everyone is equal to Allah Faith spread along trade routes esp to North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa among chiefs, Middle East, to India

  19. Spread of Islam

  20. Umayyad Empire (661-750) • Government • Caliph- political & religious leader , strong bureaucracy • Damascus is capital • Conquered North Africa, Spain (Iberia), Afghanistan • Economic • Supported trade and merchant class • No taxes for Muslims, non-Muslims (People of the Book) pay taxes • Culture • Religion • Sunni Muslim(Sunni – maj. of Islam-caliph is not related to Muhammad) • Religiously tolerant though tried to keep Muslims separate by outlawing intermarriage • Monumental building-mosque, palace, • Caliphates united by language-scholars had to read Arabic • Spread technology & culture with yearly pilgrimage to Mecca • Mawali (non-Muslims) revolt in 740s helped bring down empire

  21. Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258) • Government (combination of political and religious power) • Strong Bureaucracy • Caliph- political & religious leader • Vizier was the head of gov under Caliph (Ottomans had same in per 4) • Shari’a- religious scholars (Ulama) interpret Qur’an and create Islamic law codes- Ulama increasingly gaining more power than Caliph • Vast military with military leaders increasingly becoming more independent from Caliph • Economic • Baghdad new capital and trade center • Supported trade and merchant class who formed guilds, $$$ • Controlled much of trade-esp Indian Ocean Routes • Dhow- Muslim ships designed to sail on rough Indian Ocean (lanteen sails) • Connect Asia to African routes • As empire grew, shared new farming techniques, crops, technology (sugar cane, rice, spinach new goods)- increased food supply- healthier population • Slaves performed much of unskilled labor in empire

  22. Trade routes under Abbasid

  23. Abbasid DynastyCulture- Golden Age of Islam • Religion • Opened religion to all on equal basis helped make Islam universal religion • Religious toleration led to blending of cultures and cosmopolitan cities • Monumental building-mosques had minaret (prayer tower) & loved to build domes • Caliphates united by language-scholars had to read Arabic • Loved Chinese paper for government records and literature –poetry, Thousand and One Nights • Like Chinese, excelled in calligraphy • Learning/Education • Spread technology & culture with yearly pilgrimage to Mecca • Arabic Numerals: Brought numbers based on 10 from India and added concept of zero • Develop algebra • Created urban universities- Madrasas- which preserved Greek and Roman texts • Europeans will rediscover Greek & Roman texts when come to ME during Crusades—leading to European Renaissance

  24. Downfall of Abbasid Dynasty • Internal: Vast empire hard to defend and hold together from centralized area of Bagdad • Internal problems-Religious differences between Sunni & Shi’ites • During 800s most of Africa and Arabia broke away from Abbasid Empire • External invasions: Defeated by Mongols but eventually the Mongols converted to Islam (great example of unifying force of Islam-religion holds together people until leader converts)

  25. Gender Roles Period 3 Islamic empires • Muhammad • urged men to respect women • Polygamy ok- Muhammad authorized up to four wives • 1st wife owned a business • Some women went to battle with men- jihad • As caliphates became more urban and sophisticated, women lost status (recurring theme) • Upper class women restricted to homes-led to idea of Harem (restricted area for women) • Mongol rule- generally higher status for women

  26. Byzantine Empire • Government: • Capital-Constantinople- • fortified city –last to fall to Ottomans 1453 • Trade hub of period 3- connected Europe to ME to East Asia • Emperor-**both political & religious leader** caesaropapism • Benefitted from Roman technology-roads, infrastructure, Roman law • Justinian Code: Codified Roman law into written code: basis for law codes in Europe • Centralized bureaucracy • Economics • Located in crossroads of both sea and land trade routes • Silk production like China, manufacture cloth, carpets • Merchants held down in status by bureaucrats,/ • Culture • Religion: Christianity-Eastern Orthodox-separates from Europe • Language closer to Greek than Latin-separates from Europe • Hagia Sophia • State sponsored school for boys, girls tutored too • Women confined to home like Greece & caliphates • Culture spread to eastern Europe & Russia

  27. Mongols and the Middle East • Period 3 is the height of Mongol power. From Central Asia, they sweep across Eurasia, conquering with their quick moving cavalry • Pax-Mongolia-however, throughout Eurasia, the Mongols protected the trade routes and brought peace and prosperity to those who traded with them from East Asia (Yuan Dynasty), to Southeast Asia, to Russia, to Middle East • In addition to economic ties, Mongols spread culture, technology and disease (plague) on Silk Road. When Mongols lost power, Silk Road forever disappeared, replaced by Indian Ocean route. • While Mongols controlled most of Eurasia, they had a tendency to adopt the culture of the areas they controlled-keeping the Mongols from being a unified force—especially seen in Middle East where Mongols adopted Islam (remember, Islam is the glue that holds Middle East together)

  28. Be sure you know Kiev is new trading city of Per 3 Russia Baghdad was Abbasid capital and key per 3 trading city Delhi Sultanate Muslim rulers in Hindu India

  29. Period 3 trade • Empires more interdependent in period 3 than period 2-trade routes more complex • Major technology moving along trade routes • From China-paper (gov records, literature), compass (led to long distance navigation), gunpowder (Mongols used in catapults) led to use of cannons • To Africa: citrus, rice-better food meant healthier/stronger people • Diseases moving on trade routes-Plague came from China to Europe to Egypt to North Africa, destroying populations along the way • Trade leads to urban centers and growth of cities, growth of banks (Exs of cities: Kiev, Baghdad, Cairo, Venice, Genoa, Timbuktu, Constantinople) • Silk Road disappears with end of Mongol rule (Yuan Dynasty) at end of per 3-most trade shifted to Indian Ocean route

  30. Period 4 Continuities • Joining of western and eastern hemispheres-leads to decimation of Amerindians and their environment, Columbian Exchange, expansion of African slave trade, new social hierarchies • Balance of power changed from Asia/ME to increasing power of western Europe • Land empires remained important, esp with their use of gunpowder (Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal. Russia) • Labor systems transformed-African slavery escalated due to demand for labor in new world • Natural environment changed with introduction of new plants/animals in western hemisphere, deforestation, & diseases spread (Columbian Exchange)

  31. Europe rises at expense of Islamic Empires • Crusades (per 3) had few effects on Middle East, however European crusaders experienced the advanced culture of ME- • saw technology, medicine, weapons traded with Asia & wanted to compete-led to European development of Caravels with compasses, astrolabes, & cannons (all borrowed technology) • Venice & Genoa rose as banking/trading powers as result of crusades • Europeans rediscovered their past scholarship (Greeks & Romans) from Muslims who had never lost it—led to Renaissance • Spain (Ferdinand & Isabella) defeated Muslims and drove them out of Spain/Iberia leading to consolidation of their power and Age of Exploration which would supplant ME from key to trade routes

  32. Gunpowder Empires • Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal, Ming & Qing Dynasties, Russia • Relied on armies, roads, inland cities, economic power • Gunpowder-new technology-key to military successes • By 1750, Ottoman, Safavid & Mughal on decline while sea based empires still rising

  33. Period 4- Ottoman Empire • Osman-1299-settled in Anatolia(Turkey)–declared independence from Seljuk Turks & founded Ottoman Empire • Government • Sultan- leader • Vizier-chief administrative officer • Strong bureaucracy • Devshirme- system of tribute- taking Christian boys into the service of the Sultan- converted & educated them –they went into bureaucracy or military • Strong military- conquered Constantinople 1453 renamed Istanbul • Janissaries- Christian boys taken as tribute and made into footsoldiers for military-commanded the artillery of the army-led to power in the military and the empire • Suleiman the Magnificent led attack on Constantinople but failed to take Vienna when his armies laid siege to the city • Army & navy • Navy lost to Spain in 1571 at Battle of Lepanto- lost control of Mediterranean

  34. Ottoman Empire • Economics- • Istanbul- • Crossroads of trade –both by land and sea • wealthy from trade, urban (sophisticated) • Merchants and artisans valued- formed guilds • Empire hurt by the inflation caused by influx of European silver from New World • Culture • Religion- • Sunni Muslim (fought Safavid who were Shi’ite) • Hagia Sophia converted to largest mosque, aqueducts restored • Bureaucracy valued the printing press and paper to keep detailed records • Saw Europeans as backwards to their own superior society

  35. Problems of the Ottoman Empire: in decline by 1600s but not dissolved until end of World War I • Weak Sultans (leaders) • Succession questions when Sultan died • Sultan raised in palace and not allowed to be worldly, brothers killed when inherited throne • Large empire hard to defend • Bureaucracy in Istanbul could not control local officials who failed to pay taxes to government • Peasant Revolts

  36. Safavid Empire- ended by 1720 • Government • Led by Shah • Routinely fought Ottoman Empire –excuse was that they were different Muslim sects • Safavid cavalry, the quilbash, decimated by the Ottoman (Janissary) artillery-Battle of Chaldiran 1514 • example of the importance of new artillery • Important because stalled the Safavid empire’s expansion to the west • Height of power under Shah Abbas I (1588-1629) • Similar to devshires (Janissaries) safavid captured Russian boys and educated them to be soldiers-use of artillery gave them power in empire • Brought European technology to empire to strengthen • Land based empire-no navy • Economics • Few ports, no merchant navy- relied on the Europeans to transport goods • Trade in Persian rugs, carpets, textiles • Not urban or cosmopolitan (unlike Ottoman) • Culture • Religion-Islam- Shi’ite • Current day Iran-Persian influence • Academics spoke Persian not Arabic

  37. Period 5 (1750-1900)- Continuities • World dominated by western countries- used technology of Industrial Revolution to dominate- improved travel & communication due to Railroads, steamships, telegraph- $$ • Industrial Revolution changed life & economics- shift to urban, smaller families, pollution of cities, increased domination of colonies for raw materials & markets- one crop colonies leads to deforestation, unnatural economy that cannot sustain population • New Political model- British parliament- desire for democratic reforms (social contract) led to revolutions esp in US, France, Latin America (revolutions in ME, Africa & India in per 6) • Inequality of people leads to reform movements: abolition of slavery labor replaced by indentured servants, women’s rights (Wollstonecraft)

  38. Territory losses in Ottoman Empire to 1791

  39. Decline of Ottoman Empire • Military declines in period 5- while that was the reason they flourished in period 4- falling behind Europeans • Janissaries, fearing loss of their power, refused to innovate military in period 5 to keep up with European technology from Industrial Revolution • Greece declares independence from Ottomans 1830, Serbia 1867 • Crimean War= Ottoman, Britain & France vs Russia (1853-54) • Ottomans losing war in Crimea to Russia, who was expanding to Black Sea for warm water port • Ottomans, ironically, had to ask the Europeans for help to defeat Russians (remember in Per 4, Ottomans thought themselves superior to Europe) • Florence Nightingale revolutionized battlefield medicine • Transition from traditional to modern warfare- after war, started military schools under leadership of Europeans to train forces • Egypt, while still in empire, acts independently under Muhammad Ali

  40. Ottomans attempt reforms through westernization- failed • Tanzimat- period of reform under Mahmud- • used French legal code instead of shari’a law (Muslim law), guarantees of public trials, equality under law for all, state sponsored public schools- • Abdal-Hamid II eliminated constitution, parliament and reforms • Westernized military- modern weapons, training, uniforms • Eliminated beards (changed the way they looked like Peter in Russia or Ming Dynasty) • Tried to use western military hats but head could not touch ground for Muslim prayer- compromise= Fez (brimless) • By 1900-Empire much smaller- fewer diverse groups to unify- Young Turks-nationalist group pushed for language changed to Turkish rather than Arabic- angered Syria & Iraq

  41. Rise of Egypt under Muhammad Ali (1769-1849) but by 1880s under control of Britain • Political: • While still a part of declining Ottoman empire, begins to act independently • Ali builds army by drafting peasants and training them with European strategy & weapons (innovates unlike Ottomans)- one of first countries to come under European influence • Economic: • industrializes like Europeans- built textile/ cotton production to compete with American south during interruption in their cotton during US Civil War • Used European investment $$ to build infrastructure: RR, **started planning the SUEZ CANAL**- canal taken over by Britain • Incurred huge debt owed to Europeans • Culture • Built state sponsored , secular public schools

  42. Suez Canal(built 1859-69) • Conceived by Muhammad Ali, French helped Egypt build, taken over by Britain for debts Egypt owed Britain • Linked Mediterranean & Red Sea to dramatically reduced length (think cost, time, risk of loss) of trip/movement of goods/communication from Europe to India & China • Example of technology of Industrial Revolution (like Panama Canal) Steamboat trip from Britain to India reduced from 4 months to 2 weeks with canal

  43. Period 6 (1900-present) Continuities • Domination of west interrupted post WWII through 1991 with divisions of Cold War between two new superpowers: US vs USSR • International Organizations became more important • Exs: United Nations, World Trade Organization, European Union, League of Arab States, NATO, Warsaw Pact • Nationalism (desire for independence/own country) still important but • new area of world: Africa, ME, India, SE Asia and former Soviet Union and • new issues: fascism, decolonization, racism, genocide, breakup of Soviet Union • Political revolutions based on democratic (self determination) values • Social reform & social revolutions continue with consequences including changes in gender roles, peasant protests, spread of Marxism (USSR, China, North Korea, Cuba, Vietnam) • Increasing interaction of populations due to increased technology • Demographic changes including decrease in proportions of populations that live in western nations-Environmental changes continue

  44. Treaty of Versailles 1920 • Peace treaty that ended World War I • Goal of France and Great Britain to punish Germany • Germany had to accept responsibility/guilt for war • Germany lost colonies in Africa & ME, lost Alsace & Lorraine to France, Rhineland demilitarized zone between France & Germany • Germany had a limited military • Germany had to pay reparations to France & Britain • Wilson proposed the 14 Points of Light (optimism for future)--Created League of Nations- failed international peace body • Eastern European states gained independence like Poland, Czechoslovakia • Ottoman Empire dissolved • League created Mandates- states under the protection of European nations- opposite of Nationalism (Ex: GB controlled Palestine & Iraq, France controlled Syria & Lebanon) • Ex of Social Darwinism- League gave ind to European states but not ME • Oil is new important raw material- Europe wants to control oil fields • Created fragmented ME and resentment by ME states against Europe/west

  45. Post WWI Mandates created by Treaty of Versailles

  46. Post WWII-Decolonization- Turkey • secular nationalism-1923Mustafa Kemal unified Turkey into independent country • Like the reforms of the Ottoman Empire- • tried to create seculargov: eliminated shari’a law (Muslim), ended polygamy and office of Caliph • Changed culture: changed from Arabic writing to Roman alphabet, encouraged wearing of western style clothes, urged women to discontinue wearing veils • Led to tensions in Turkey between clerics and government

  47. Post WWII-Decolonization-Iran • Pahlavi Dynasty-Shah of Iran • Highly centralized state-first since Persian Empire • Religious state but secular (western) law codes and judicial system • Suffrage (voting) for women, restricted polygamy, allowed women to work outside home • Supported by USA • ReligiousRevolution • many Muslims did not like Shah because he made Iran too secular too soon, seen as to close to USA, also seen as dictator • 1978 hundreds of unarmed demonstrators against Shah were killed in Tehran then oil workers went on strike • Created Theocracy led by Ayatollah Khomeini • Islamic Fundamentalist- Shi’ite leaders launched Cultural Revolution with goals similar to China’s • Moving away from secularism toward purification of Shi’ism • Killed opposition • Anti-USA