Resources NORTH • 23 million in 22 states • 4 million ages 15-40 • 2.4 million mobilized • Industrial Economy • 109,000 plants • 22,000 miles of integrated railway SOUTH • 9 million in 11 states • 1.14 million age 15-40 • 1 million mobilized • Agricultural economy • 31,000 plants • 9,000 miles of non-uniform railway The North appeared to have a distinct advantage...
Confederate Advantages • Slave labour freed up a large portion of the white population for military service; • Their war aims were more easily achieved: waging a successful defence required fewer soldiers than an offensive campaign. • The North had to conquer the South and reunite the nation by force. • Believed Britain would provide them with support because they depended on southern cotton for British textile mills.
Military Leadership – advantage South • 1,080 officers active • 286 went South (184 from West Point) • 900 West Pointers in civilian sector • 99 joined South • 55 of 60 largest battles were led by West Point graduates • Three most qualified Union generals joined South (Lee and two Johnstons)
The American President Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott Joseph Hooker Ulysses S. Grant Irwin McDowell George McClellan George Meade Ambrose Burnside George McClellan,Again!
Overviewofthe North’sCivil WarStrategy: “Anaconda”Plan
Union Strategy AIMS • Fight to preserve the Union; • Toward the end of the war, a fight to free the slaves; • Aggressive offensive to crush rebellion: STRATEGY • “the Anaconda Plan” – 3 pronged approach • Linked economics and combat • Naval blockade of the Confederate coastline with a seizure of ports and supplies (ruin their economy) Two armies to constrict Confederacy: • a northern army to seize Richmond, Va., which was the Confederate capital; • a southern army to takeover the Mississippi River and head north through Tennessee and Georgia Diplomatically, they had to prevent European nations from supporting the Confederacy.
The Leaders of the Confederacy Pres. Jefferson Davis VP Alexander Stevens
The Confederate Seal MOTTO “With God As Our Vindicator”
The Confederate Generals “Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest George Pickett Jeb Stuart James Longstreet Robert E. Lee
The South's Aims and Strategy AIMS • Fight for independence; • Fight to protect their homes and families, and to preserve slavery. STRATEGY • Fight a defensive war; • Seize and destroy Washington, D.C., strike northward into Maryland and Pennsylvania, drive a wedge between the Northeast and Mid-west, and disrupt Union communications. • Break the blockade so their ships could get through • Get help from Britain and France because they needed the South’s cotton. PROBLEM: British colonies in Egypt and India increased their cotton production, and consequently the British had no need to step in the war in order to keep the cotton coming to their textile mills.
The Battle of the Ironclads,March, 1862 The Monitor vs.the Merrimac
Damage on the Deck of the Monitor • March 8-9, 1862 • The battle took place in Hampton Roads, VA. • The South had built an iron ship called the Merrimac or the Virginia. • The North challenged the Confederate ship with the northern iron ship called the Monitor. • The two iron ships fought for 5 hours and even collided 5 times. • Viewed as a victory for the North because they kept the South from getting supplies from the rest of the world.