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The civil war 1861-1865

The civil war 1861-1865

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The civil war 1861-1865

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  1. The civil war1861-1865 Chapter 21 Girding for War: The North and South

  2. DVD • Ken Burns The Civil War • Episode 1 The Cause 1861

  3. Disunited States Causes Major Events Leading to War Reasons for Secession Lincoln’s First Inaugural 1861 Border States Brothers War Confederacy

  4. Causes of the Civil War • Slavery • Sectionalism • Conflict between two societies • Irreconcilable differences • Morality • Politics • Culture • Social values • Economic struggle industrial North and agricultural South • Collapse of the political parties • Democratic and Whig parties torn apart over slavery • Emergence of purely regional parties • Saw opponents as not merely opponents for power but • Opponents for and threats to their way of life • Weak political leadership • Ineptitude of a blundering generation of political leaders

  5. Major Events Leading to the Civil War • Compromise of 1850 • Fugitive Slave Law 1850 • Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 • Bleeding Kansas 1856 • Dred Scott Decision 1857 • Harper’s Ferry 1859 • Election of Lincoln 1860 • South Carolina’s Secession 1860 • Fort Sumter 1861

  6. Secession Reasons for secession • Alarmed at northern power and “majority of numbers” • Concern over Republican Party’s power • Tired of free-soil criticism, abolitionist nagging, northern interference • Underground railroad • John Brown’s Raid • Thought North would not fight • Thought northern manufacturing was dependant on southern cotton • Wanted to be left alone

  7. Secession

  8. Lincoln’s Inaugural AddressMarch 4, 1861 • President of a disunited states • Seven states had already seceded • Four more would soon follow Seceding states 8 11 10 1 9 5 4 2 6 7 3

  9. Lincoln’s Inaugural AddressMarch 4, 1861 • Firm yet conciliatory • One of the greatest in history • No conflict unless the South provoked it • Secession—impractical • “Physically speaking, we cannot separate.” • “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war.” • “I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.”

  10. Border States Butternut Region Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia • White population greater than half of the entire Confederacy • Kentucky and Missouri • Considerable manufacturing • Horses, mules could have increased by one half the supply for the South • Ohio River along Kentucky and West Virginia—vital • Tributaries • Cumberland River and Tennessee River • Penetrated deep into the South • Lincoln hoped God was on his side, BUT • He had to have Kentucky

  11. Lincoln and the Border States • Declared martial law in Maryland • Deployed troops in western Virginia and Missouri • Careful not to alienate the border states • Made no anti-slavery statements early on • Needed to keep the “Butternut” region of southern • Ohio, Indiana, Illinois • Purpose • Save the Union Butternut Region

  12. A Brother’s War North South • 22 million people • Invade vast southern territory; drag it back into the Union • Poor in high command until • Ulysses S. Grant • William Tecumseh Sherman • Large reserve of manpower • Less prepared for military life • Through training, discipline and determination adjusted to soldiering • One in ten die • Huge farms; Sprawling factories • Controlled the seas; Superior navy • Blockaded South • Three-fourths of nation’s wealth • Economy—greatest northern strength • 9 million people and 3.5 million slaves • Fight defensively behind interior lines; stand firm • Most talented officers • Robert E. Lee • Stonewall Jackson • Excellent cavalrymen from boyhood • One in five die • Lacked factories • Shortages of food • Shortages of shoes, uniforms, blankets • Poor transportation • Economy –greatest southern weakness

  13. Confederacy • Counted on foreign intervention • That did not come • Jefferson Davis – president • Tense , stubborn, not real popular • Educated at West Point • Fought in Mexican War • Served as Secretary of War • Senator from Mississippi • Trouble keeping all states in Confederacy • Some states did not want their troops serving outside their own state borders Jefferson Davis

  14. Abraham Lincoln • Greatest president • Mysterious man • Highly intelligent • Everything he did was done for effect • Insisted he was making war on secession not slavery

  15. Lincoln’s Domestic Program Lincoln Pacific Railroad Act 1862 National Banking System 1863

  16. Abraham Lincoln Lincoln—the man Lincoln—the President • Tactful • Quiet • Patient • Firm • Superior and up to the task • A genius for leading a fickle public opinion • Held union-high-above all • Demonstrated charity to the South • Congress not in session when war began so • Proclaimed a blockade • Later upheld by Supreme Court • Increased size of army • Only Congress can do this • Congress later approved • Suspended habeas corpus • To arrest anti-Unionists • Federal officials suspended certain newspapers • Arrested editors for obstructing the war

  17. President Abraham Lincoln Before his presidency As President • For limiting presidential power • Opposed U.S. entry into Mexican War • Critical of Jackson’s use of executive authority • Broke new ground for presidential power • Unprecedented use of implied, inherent power in Article II • Commander-in-chief • Raised and army • Blockaded southern ports • Temporarily suspended habeas corpus • Spent money • “Take care that the laws be faithfully executed” • Issued Emancipation Proclamation • Justified expansion of presidential power because of the emergency of war

  18. Pacific Railroad Act 1862 • First trans-continental railroad • Began in 1865 • For each mile of track built • Railroad was granted 20 square miles of land • Alternating in 640 acre lots on either side of the track • Federal loans to railroads • $16,000/mile on prairie • $48,000/mile in mountainous country Promoting Union Pacific Railroad 1869

  19. National Banking System 1863 • Created to launch sale of government war bonds • Designed to establish a standard bank-note (currency) • Gets rid of “rag money” • Banks that joined the system • Could buy government bonds and • Issue sound government backed paper money • Results • First step toward a unified banking system • Replaces the Second Bank of U.S. • System continues until 1913 and the Federal Reserve

  20. Northern Economic Boom • New banking system encouraged • New factories • Laborsaving machinery • Sewing machines • Mechanical reapers • Petroleum found 1859 in Pennsylvania • New industry • Homestead Act 1862 • Encouraged westward movement @ 300,000 to free land • Civil war bred • Millionaire class for first time in history • Military need and innovative machinery created • Graduated standard measurements • Civil war opened • New opportunities for women • Clerks, government workers • Clara Barton (founded Red Cross) • Dorothea Dix • Nurses for the Union Army • Transformed nursing from lowly service to respected profession

  21. The War Northern Army Firing on Fort Sumter April 1861 Battle of Bull Run 1861

  22. Civil War 1861-1865 • Fought in 10,000 places • Three million fought • Six hundred thousand died • 2% of the population • Wholesale slaughter • Began as • Bitter dispute over union and states’ rights • Ended as • Struggle over the meaning of freedom • New Birth of Freedom • Crossroads of our being Grant Lee

  23. Northern Army • Lincoln offered command of the Union Army to • Robert E. Lee • Most promising officer in the regular army • Lee turned it down • Volunteers at first • Whole towns enlisted • Each state was assigned a quota • Based on population • Conscription Law 1863 • Draft—First time on a nationwide scale • Rich boys could hire substitutes • Three hundred dollar men • Incompetent leadership • Forced Lincoln to use a costly “trial and error” method to sort out effective leaders Recruiting Immigrants for the Union Army

  24. Fort Sumter April 2, 1861 • South Carolina fired on Fort Sumter • Electrified the North • Provoked them to fight • Before Sumter talk of letting the South leave • Bloodless opening to bloodiest war in U.S. history • “All the past we leave behind with Sumter.”Walt Whitman • Lincoln • Turned Sumter into a demand to fight • Called for 75,000 militiamen • Proclaimed a blockade of Southern seaports • After Sumter • Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina seceded • Richmond, Virginia capital of the Confederacy replacing • Montgomery, Alabama

  25. Fort Sumter In this vivid engraving, South Carolina shore batteries under the command of P. G. T. Beauregard shell Fort Sumter, the last federal stronghold in Charleston Harbor, on the night of April 12, 1861. Curious and excited civilians look on from their rooftops, never suspecting the horrors that would be the outcome of this rash action.

  26. Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1861 • After Sumter • Lincoln wanted the Union to attack the Confederate force at • Bull Run (Manassas Junction), Virginia • Hoped to show Union superiority • Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1861 • Initially went well for Union • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson and Confederate reinforcements arrived • Union army panicked; fled in confusion • Psychological and political consequences • Southern victory • Turned out to be bad for the South • Made them feel overconfident • Northern defeat • Good for the North • Dispelled the illusion of a short war • 5,000 casualties

  27. Union Offensives into Virginia • 1861-1862 • Two failed Union attempts to invade • Virginia • Battle of Bull Run (July 1861) • Peninsular Campaign (Aug. 1862) • Confederate victories embarrassed • the richer and more populous • Union.