The Rise of Dictators and World War II Main Idea – The rise of dictators in Europe and Asia led to World War II. Aggressive leaders still threaten peace today.
Section 1 Steps to War • The Great Depression had ruined economies in Europe. Many Europeans turned to new leaders to solve their problems. • Who were the dictators that came to power in Europe? • Dictator – an absolute ruler. • Italy – Benito Mussolini – began a political movement – fascism – an extreme form of nationalism and racism. • Germany – Adolf Hitler – leader of the fascist National Socialist German Workers’ Party – or Nazi Party.
Who am I? • Benito Mussolini • Italy Fascist and Totalitarian State
Who am I? • Adolf Hitler • Germany
Dictators come to power: • Soviet Union - Joseph Stalin – the Communist dictator took over upon the death of Vladimir Lenin (led the Communist takeover of Russia in 1917.) His government tried to control every aspect of life in the nation. • Japan – The military was gaining more and more power with army General Hideki Tojo having more power than the Emperor Hirohito.
Who am I? • Joseph Stalin • Russia Communist and Totalitarian State
Who am I? • Emperor • Hirohito • Japan General Hideki Tojo Prime Minister Totalitarian State
Who am I? • Francisco Franco • Spain • Fascist who overthrows the democratic government.
Who am I? • Winston Churchill • Great Britain
Who am I? • Franklin Delano Roosevelt • United States
Define: • Fascism – political movement that preached intense nationalism and racism. • Adolf Hitler – Nazi dictator of Germany. • Nazi party – Fascist party that ruled Germany between 1933 – 1945, with Hitler as the dictator. • Dictator – absolute ruler. • Joseph Stalin – the Communist dictator of the Soviet Union.
Axis Powers – the name of the alliance between Germany and Italy, and later would include Japan. • Benito Mussolini Dictator of Italy • General Hideki Tojo – Military leader of Japan. • 9. Appeasement – the policy of meeting a nation’s demands to avoid war. • 10. Lend - Lease Program – the policy in which the US sent war materials to the Allied Powers. • 11. Pearl Harbor – the site of the Japanese attack on the United States.
12. The Munich Agreement – Hitler and Neville Chamberlain, Britain’s Prime Minister, met in Munich, Germany. They made an agreement giving Germany control of the Sudetenland, in return, Hitler promised to stop taking anymore territory. This appeasement was supposed to make “peace in our time.” • 13. Blitzkrieg – a new method of warfare, using speed and surprise, “lightning war.” • 14. Luftwaffe - Germany’s air force • 15. The Battle of Britain – German planes flew massive bombing attacks on London and other civilian targets – but the British never surrendered.
WorldWar II • CAUSES (Long Term) • WWI (the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles) • Dictators come to power in Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union • Severe economic problems exist in Europe and Asia. • Italy, Germany, and Japan expand their territory. • The policy of appeasement fails.
Immediate Causes • Germany invades Poland. • Japanese attack the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor
Countries That Threatened World Peace • Japan • Military leaders took control of gov’t • Invaded Manchuria • Tried to expand in the Pacific • Joined the Axis Powers in 1940
Countries That Threatened World Peace • Italy • Mussolini seized control of the gov’t and the military and formed a fascist state • Italy formed alliance with Germany called the Axis Powers • Invaded Ethiopia in 1936 • Supported Franco in Spain’s civil war
Countries That Threatened World Peace • Germany • Dictator and fascist Adolph Hitler took control in 1934 • created a totalitarian state • built up Germany’s army
Countries That Threatened World Peace • Germany • Nazis attacked Jews and sent them to concentration camps • Hitler made alliance with Mussolini as an Axis Power • Supported Franco in Spain’s civil war
Countries That Threatened World Peace • Germany • Threatened France’s border • Annexed Austria • Seized the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia
German Aggression! Lightning War - Hitler invades Poland
One of the VonTrapp children in the Sound of Music calls itThe “angry spider”. Even today, neo nazi groups and other hate groups use it to represent their programs of prejudice.
German Aggression Belgium Nazi Blitzkrieg April - May 1940 Hitler conquers Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands
April 1940 The Miracle of Dunkirk
June 22, 1940 France surrenders September 1940 U.S. passes first peacetime draft
German Aggression Battle of Britain Autumn 1940 - daily air raids over Britain - Unable to defeat the British quickly!
German Aggression • Despite their partnership – Hitler and Stalin distrusted each other. (There is no honor among thieves or dictators.) • June1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union • September 1941 – January 1944 German troops surround the city. The Siege of Leningrad - - lasted 872 days • December 1941 – German advance to Moscow – harshest winter in decades. The weather and the Soviets push them back.
Dec. 1940 The Lend-Lease Policy allows U.S. to give Allies help.
Atlantic Charter Prime Minister Winston Churchill President Franklin Roosevelt Discuss allied goals: the right of all people to self-determination, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, free from want, and freedom from fear.
Pearl Harbor Ford Island, seen on 10 October 1941 from much the same angle as Japanese bomber pilots viewed it on 7 December. National Archives Photo 80-G-279375
Deployment of attacking Japanese aircraft 183 aircraft of the first attack wave were launched from the six Imperial Japanese Navy carriers; Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiru, Zuikaku and Shokaku, 230 miles North of O'ahu at 6:00 A.M. - They were ordered to attack at 0750 A.M. by Lt. Commander Mitsuo Fuchida. At approximately 7:15 A.M. the second wave of aircraft was launched and 170 more aircraft were on their way to Pearl Harbor.
Shattered by a direct hit, the USS Arizona burns and sinks, December 7, 1941.
FDR calls this “a date which will live in infamy”, and Congress declares that a state of war exists with Japan.
With only 450 feet of 'runway,' one of sixteen Army B-25 Mitchell bombers takes off from the deck of the USS HORNET on its way to take part in the Doolittle Raid, the first U.S. bombing raid on Japan. The all volunteer strike force, trained and led by Lt. Col. James Doolittle, flew 800 miles then bombed Tokyo and 3 other cities without opposition. The raid inflicted little damage but gave a big boost to Allied morale in the face of the seemingly unstoppable Japanese. April 18, 1942. Doolittle’s Raid
Major Events Review • 1936 Germany and Italy form Axis Powers. • Civil war erupts in Spain. • Germany annexes Austria (think the Sound of Music - true story.) • Britain and France allow Germany to annex the Sudetenland in the Munich Agreement. • Germany invades Czechoslovakia. • Germany signs nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union. • Germany invades Poland, Sept. 1, 1939. • Britain and France declare war on Germany, Sept. 3
Japan joins the Axis Powers • Germany invades France. • Battle of Britain fought. • Germany invades the Soviet Union. • December 7 - Japan attacks United States at Pearl Harbor. • The United States enters the war.