GRAMMAR REVIEW Appositives Clauses Verbals
Appositives • An appositive is a noun that renames another noun. 1st Noun 2nd Noun - APPOSITIVE Jojo, the crazy monkey, likes to eat the bananas Mrs. Bell gives her.
Appositives • Lulu, the teacher’s pet, always makes good grades. • “pet” renames “Lulu” • Mrs. Wallace does not like, her next-door neighbor’s dog, Sandy. • “Sandy” renames “dog” • The novel, his greatest work of all time, is on the bestseller list. • “work” renames “novel”
Appositives Don’t confuse Appositives with Predicate Nominatives. LINKING VERB = PN • Example: Henry is a student. • Even though “student” is the second noun in the sentence, it is not an appositive because “is” is a linking verb.
The Difference Between Clauses and Verbals… A CLAUSE has a subject and a verb. A VERBAL does not. It is just a phrase.
Clauses Adverb Noun Adjective
Clauses • A clause contains a subject and a verb. • Examples: Heran, Italked, Why theyjaywalked,Beforesheattacked
Noun Clauses act as subjects, predicate nominatives, direct objects, and objects of prepositions
Noun Clauses • There are three kinds of subordinate clauses, and one of them is the noun clause. • The noun clause can be used in a sentence four ways – as a subject, direct object, predicate nominative, or object of a preposition.
Noun Clauses • Noun Clause as Subject • Whatever I ate made my stomach queasy.
Noun Clauses • Noun Clause as Direct Object • The dog chased whoever had stolen his bone.
Noun Clause • Noun Clause as Predicate Nominative • You are whoever you want to be. ** This is a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE and not an APPOSITIVE because of the linking verb “are.” **
Noun Clause • Noun Clause as Object of a Preposition • The creepy clown was hiding behind whoever entered the room last.
Adjective Clauses modify nouns
That • The books that are on the table are very heavy. • “That are on the table”describes the books. • The cookie that I ate had chocolate chunks in it. • “That I ate”describes the cookie.
Who • The girl who likes baking brings cookies for everyone on Valentine’s Day. • “Who likes baking”describes the girl. • The boy who makes me laugh says a lot of strange things. • “Who makes me laugh”describes the boy.
Which • London, which is a busy city, has over seven million residents. • “Which is a busy city”describes London. • My sixth period class, which is taught by Ms. Butz, is English III. • “Which is taught by Ms. Butz”describes the sixth period class.
When do I use commas? • Restrictive clauses– do NOT need commas • The dog that ate my homework was a beagle. • “That ate my homework” narrows down which dog you are talking about. • Americans who vote are good citizens. • Americans is proper and plural, but in this sentence, you are not talking about all Americans.
When do I use commas? (cont.) • Non-restrictive clauses–DO need commas • Paris, which is in France, is a beautiful city. • Almost all adjective clauses describing a proper noun must be surrounded by commas. • My ultimate dream, which is to climb Mount Everest, has not yet been fulfilled. • This dream has already been specified as the “ultimate dream”; therefore, “which is to climb Mount Everest” further describes the dream.
Adverb Clauses modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
Adverbial Clauses • An adverbial clause is a clause that functions as an adverb (modifies a verb). • Answers the questions HOW, WHEN, WHERE, UNDER WHAT CONDITION, TO WHAT EXTENT, WHY, etc.
Examples of Adverbial Clauses • Until Istopped, Before the teacherunderstood, When the presentationended, etc. (answer the question WHEN) • Because hedied, Since Pedrowas tired, etc. (answer the question WHY) • Where the Red FernGrows, Wherever lifetakes you, etc. (answer the question WHERE)
Verbals Participles Gerunds Infinitives
Participles serve as adjectives suffixes: –en –ed –ing
Participles • Verbals ending in –ING (or –ED/–EN) • Function as ADJECTIVES (modify a noun). • Examples: • The snoozing student • “Sleeping Beauty” • The frozen steak
Participial PHRASES • Participial phrase: Participle + other words related to the participle • The PowerPoint educating the students • The miserable castaway eating his own flesh • Huck, accompanying Jim on the journey, faces a great internal conflict.
Gerunds serve as nouns suffix: –ing
Gerunds •Gerunds are a form of a verb ending in “–ing” and functioning as a noun. • Ex: Swimming is a sport. • A gerund can be used in a sentence as a predicate nominative, a subject, a direct object,and the object of a preposition.
Gerunds • Gerund as a Predicate Nominative • The second round of Fear Factor is eating cow’s eyes.
Gerunds • Gerund as Subject • Doing my homework takes forever!
Gerunds • Gerund as Direct Object • She loves throwing huge fireballs.
Gerunds • Gerund as Object of the Preposition • Everyone knows that Edward Cullen sparkles after seeing the sun.
Infinitives to + verb
Don’t Be Confused. • DO NOT confuse infinitive phrases with prepositional ones. • Infinitive phrases: to + verb + object of the infinitive (noun) • Prepositional phrases:to + noun (location, person, etc) Ex. Go to the market. – prepositional phrase Goto have fun. – infinitive phrase
Infinitives Used as Adverbs • I studied to pass Mr. Sager’s exam. • Why did I study? I studied so that I wouldpass Mr. Sager’s exam. “To pass”describes “study.” • Save the cheerleader to save the world. • Why do you need to save the cheerleader? You need to save her to save the world.
Infinitives Used as Adjectives • The recipe to make brownies is on the first page. • Which recipe is on the first page? It is the recipe to make to make brownies. • There are many ways to give back to your community. • “To give back”describes “ways.”“To your community” is a prepositional phrase.
Infinitives Used as Appositives • My hobby, to draw, is fun. • “To draw”identifies which hobby is fun. • Her dream, to sing in an opera, is unrealistic. • “To sing in an opera”identifies which dream of hers is unrealistic.
Infinitives Used as Nouns • To succeed in Calculus BC is my goal. • What is my goal? It is to succeed in Calculus BC. “To succeed” is the subject. • Joy and I like to sing. • "To sing" is the direct object. It answers the question, “What do Joy and I like to do?”
Introductory Infinitive Phrases • To prepare for the in-class essay, Emily took notes on the themes in the novel as she read. • To study for the vocabulary quiz, Robin made flashcards. • To raise her participation grade, Lienna made as many comments as she could.